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Translator's Introduction

The Alter Rebbe

Reb Baruch's Secret Studies

Reb Gershon Dov Of Pohor

The Previous Rebbe's Ancestral Tree

Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders Of Chabad-Lubavitch

Glossary

Geographic Terms

Branches Of The Chassidic Menorah - Volume Two
Biographical Stories Based On The Essay
Fathers Of Chassidus
By The Previous Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
First published in the classical columns of HaTamim


Glossary

Translated by Shimon Neubort

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  Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders Of Chabad-LubavitchGeographic Terms  

All non-English entries are Hebrew unless otherwise indicated. Ar., Aramaic; Rus., Russian; Yid., Yiddish

For further definition of the terminology of Chassidus, see Rabbi Nissan Mindel, Glossary, in the Bi-Lingual Edition of Likkutei Amarim-Tanya, Kehot Publication Society, London, 1973, p. 774ff. And Rabbi Jacob I. Schochet, Mystical Concepts in Chassidism, op. cit., p. 802ff.

An asterisk indicates a cross-reference within the Glossary.

Acharonim(a) the "Later Sages," who flourished after the mid-sixteenth century; (b) works written by these sages
AdarHeb. month corresponding to February-March; in leap years, there are two months of Adar, called Adar I and Adar II
Aggadah(lit., "the telling": Ar.): allegorical tales and other non-legal matter found in the *Talmud
ahavas Yisraellove of one's fellow Jews
Al Cheita pro forma confession of sins in alphabetic order, normally recited only on Yom Kippur (*Siddur, p. 302ff.; 312ff.)
aliyahthe honor of being called up to the public *Torah reading to recite the blessings (*Siddur, p. 70, 186)
Amenresponse given after hearing a prayer or blessing, and at certain points during the prayer service; expresses belief in what has just been said
Amoraim(lit., "sayers": Ar.): Sages whose opinions are quoted in the *Gemara
Anash(acronym for anshei shlomeinu, lit., "men of our peace"): the *chassidic fraternity; usually refers to the fellowship of the *chassidim who follow a specific *Rebbe
Ari, AriZal(lit., "the 'Lion' of blessed memory"): R. Isaac Luria (1534-1572), one of the leading luminaries of the *Kabbalah
Asiyah(lit., "the [World of] Action" or "Making"): the lowest of the *Four Worlds described in *Kabbalah; the physical world in which we live
Atzilus(lit., "the [World of] Emanation"): the highest of the *Four Worlds described in *Kabbalah; the abode of the highest angelic beings and of the souls of the greatest *tzaddikim; often viewed in Kabbalah and *Chassidus as distinct from the lower three worlds, and united with G-dliness
avodah(lit., "service"): formerly, the Sacrificial Service in the *Beis HaMikdash, and later, the service of prayer instituted in its stead; in *chassidic terminology, refers to one's entire program of serving and worshiping G-d
Avodas HaKodesh(lit., "Service of the Sanctuary"): *Kabbalistic work by R. Meir ben Gabbai (b. 1480)
baal korei (colloq. form of baal keriah, lit., "master of reading")one who reads from the *Torah scroll at the public prayer service
baal teshuvah(lit., "master of return"; pl., baalei teshuvah): a person who returns to G-d in repentance, after willful or unwitting transgression of the *Torah's commandments
bar mitzvah(lit., "obligated to fulfill the commandments"): (a) the attainment of religious majority at the age of 13, at which point a boy becomes personally responsible for his religious practice; (b) a lad who has reached the age of bar mitzvah; (c) a feast held in honor of the occasion, at which the lad customarily recites a *pilpul or other *Torah teaching
batei hamedrashsee beis hamedrash
Bavlithe Babylonian *Talmud, developed in Babylonia, and edited at end of the fifth century
beis hamedrash (pl., batei hamedrash)house of (*Torah) study, usually serving as a synagogue as well; in chassidic circles, the terms beis hamedrash and *shul are often used interchangeably
Beis HaMikdashthe (First or Second) Holy Temple in Jerusalem
ben"son of ..."; used as part of a man's formal name, followed by the name of either his father or mother
Beriah(lit., "the [World of] Creation"): the second (in descending order) of the *Four Worlds described in *Kabbalah; the abode of the higher classes of angelic beings, and of the souls of *tzaddikim
B"H(abbrev. of Baruch HaShem): "Blessed be G-d"
Binah(lit., "understanding"): the second of the ten *sefiros; the second state in the intellectual process of *Chabad, developing the initial conception of *Chochmah
bochur (pl., bochurim)a young man past the age of *bar mitzvah, but not yet married, usually studying at a *yeshivah
Chabad(acronym for *Chochmah, *Binah, *Daas): (a) the first three of the ten sefiros, and the corresponding stages that comprise the intellectual process; (b) the branch of the Chassidic Movement (see Chassidus) whose roots are in an intellectual approach to the service of G-d, and which was founded by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the Alter Rebbe; a synonym for Chabad in this sense is *Lubavitch, the name of the township where the movement flourished 1813-1915; (c) the philosophy of this school of Chassidism; (d) adherents of this movement
chadorimsee cheder
charomimsee cheirem
chassid (pl., chassidim)(a) adherent of the Chassidic Movement (see Chassidus); (b) follower of a particular chassidic *Rebbe (when capitalized)
Chassidus(a) Chassidism, i.e., the movement within Orthodox Judaism founded in the Ukraine by R. Yisrael, the Baal Shem Tov, and stressing: emotional involvement in prayer; service of G-d through the material universe; wholehearted earnestness in divine service; the mystical in addition to the legalistic dimension of Judaism; the power of joy, and of music; the love to be shown to every Jew, unconditionally; and the mutual physical and moral responsibility of the members of the informal chassidic brotherhood, each chassid having cultivated a spiritual attachment to their saintly mentor, the *Rebbe; (b) the philosophy and literature of this movement; see also Chabad
chazanone who leads the *minyan in prayer; the cantor
cheder(lit., "room"; pl., chadorim): a Jewish elementary school; in chassidic circles, this term may refer to a class for a select group of advanced adult students
cheirem (pl., charomim)a ban of excommunication issued by the rabbinical authorities against an individual or group
CheshvanHeb. month corresponding to October-November; also called MarCheshvan
Chevra Kadisha(lit., "the holy society": Ar.): the society that attends to the *tahara and burial of the deceased and oversees the management of the community cemetery
Chochmah(lit., "wisdom"): the first of the ten *sefiros; the first stage in the intellectual process of *Chabad; reason in potentia
Chol HaMoed(lit., "weekday during the festival"): the intermediate days of *Pesach and *Sukkos, observed as minor festivals
Chumashthe Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible
Daas(lit., "knowledge"): the third of the ten *sefiros; the third stage in the intellectual process of *Chabad, at which concepts, having proceeded from seminal intuition (*Chochmah) through meditative gestation (*Binah), now mature into their corresponding *middos
daven; davenen; davening(Yid.): (a) the prayers; in *Chabad usage also signifies (b) the *avodah of praying at length, the reading of passages in the *Siddur being interspersed with pauses for disciplined meditation from memory on related texts in *Chassidus; (c) used as a verb, e.g., "I am ready to daven *Minchah" or "he is busy davening"
deveikus(lit., "clinging): spiritual attachment to, or unification with the Divine
eiruv(lit., "merging"; pl., eiruvin): one of several rabbinically-instituted procedures, executed before *Shabbos or *Yom Tov, for the purpose of: (a) extending the normal boundaries, to permit one to walk distances that would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic law; (b) permitting people to carry in certain areas where it would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic law; (c) permitting one to cook for the following Shabbos day, when Yom Tov falls on Friday
ElulHeb. month corresponding to August-September
Eretz Yisraelthe Land of Israel
Erev ..."the eve of ...," i.e., the day preceding ...; as in Erev *Shabbos, Erev *Yom Tov
farbrengen(Yid.): (a) a chassidic assembly addressed by the *Rebbe; (b) an informal gathering of *chassidim for mutual and brotherly edification
Four Worldsthe main stages in the creative process, resulting from progressive stages of evolutionary descent of G-d's infinite light; see Atzilus, Beriah, Yetzirah, Asiyah
gabbai(Ar.): (a) an executive officer of the synagogue or other communal institution; (b) an official of the *Rebbe's court, who admits people for *yechidus
Gan Edenthe Garden of Eden (Paradise)
gaon(lit., "esteemed one"; pl., geonim): a *Torah genius; when capitalized, "the Gaon" usually refers specifically to Rav Eliyahu of Vilna (1720-1797)]
gartel(Yid.): a braided sash or belt worn (esp. by *chassidim) during prayer and other formal occasions
Gehennom(a) various forms of suffering (perceived as fire, snow, etc.) that a departed soul undergoes, as punishment for sins committed during life, and as purification before entering *Gan Eden; (b) the place where this suffering occurs
Gemara(Ar.): the *Talmud (usually refers to *Bavli); the elucidation of the *Mishnah, and the discussion of related topics, by the Sages
geonimsee gaon
Halachah(lit., "the way to go"; pl., Halachos): (a) the body of Jewish law; (b) texts dealing with this subject; (c) a particular law
Hallel(lit., "praise"): Chapters 113-118 of *Tehillim, recited on most festivals and on *Rosh Chodesh (*Siddur, p. 241ff.); the local rabbinate may also decree a special public recital of Hallel when a particularly joyous event occurs
HaMotzieblessing ("who brings forth bread from the earth") recited over bread (*Siddur, p. 87)
Haskalah(lit., "the Enlightenment"): (a) the movement founded in the late 18th century by Moses Mendelssohn to restudy the Torah in the light of modern secular knowledge; (b) later offshoots of this movement
HaTamim(lit., "the perfect one"): periodical publication by the Students' Organization of the Lubavitcher Yeshivah in Warsaw; only eight issues were actually printed, during the period 1935-1937
Hilchos ..."Laws of ..."; part of the title of a treatise on a specific area of *Halachah
illuy(lit., "elevated one"; pl., illuyim): a young (*Torah) genius; a child prodigy
IyarHeb. month corresponding to April-May
Kabbalah(lit., "received tradition"): the body of classical Jewish mystical teachings
Kabbalas Shabbos(lit., "reception of Shabbos): service recited Friday evenings before *Maariv (*Siddur, p. 128ff.)
Kabbalistone who studies or specializes in *Kabbalah:
Kaddish(lit., "sanctification"): a prayer in Aramaic, recited by the *chazan between sections of the public prayer service, and by mourners at the conclusion of the service (e.g., *Siddur, p. 77)
Katansee Yom Kippur Katan
Kedushah(lit., "holiness"): a passage in the public prayer service, with portions recited responsively by the *chazan and the congregation (e.g., *Siddur, p. 52, 193)
Kerias Shemarecitation of the *Shema
Kiddush(lit., "sanctification"): (a) blessings recited over a goblet of wine, during the evening, and again during the afternoon of *Shabbos or a festival, expressing the sanctity of the occasion (eg., *Siddur, p. 201); (b) a gathering, including light refreshment and words of *Torah, held in conjunction with the recitation of this prayer
KislevHeb. month corresponding to November-December
kittel(Yid.): (a) white gown, usually made of linen, worn by men on *Yom Kippur and certain other very solemn occasions; (b) similar linen garment used as one of the traditional burial shrouds
Kohen (pl., Kohannim)"priest," i.e., a descendant of Aharon; only a Kohen may perform the *avodah in the *Beis HaMikdash
Kohen Gadolthe "high priest," or chief of the *Kohanim; only the Kohen Gadol may perform the sacrificial *avodah on *Yom Kippur, and only he may enter the Most Holy Chamber on Yom Kippur
LeChayim!"to life!"; traditional toast, offered over wine or other fermented or distilled beverage
Likkutei Amarim(lit., "Collected Discourses"): alternate title of the *Tanya
Likkutei Torah(lit., "Collected Teachings"): a classic collection of chassidic discourses by the Alter Rebbe, collected and edited by the Tzemach Tzedek
Lubavitch(lit., "town of love": Rus.): village in White Russia (now in Russia) which, from 1813 to 1915, was the center of *Chabad *Chassidus, and whose name has remained a synonym for it
Maarivevening prayer service (*Siddur, p. 106ff.)
maggida preacher; when capitalized, "the Maggid" usually refers specifically to R. Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezritch
MarCheshvansee Cheshvan
maskilim(lit., "intellectuals"): members of the *Haskalah Movement
masmidone who studies *Torah constantly, with great diligence
mazel tov!(lit., "a good star"): "Good Luck!"; also, commonly used in the sense of "Congratulations!" or a combination of these two sentiments
Mechilta(lit., "the Compendium": Ar.): a compilation of *Halachah and its derivation based on *Chumash, compiled during the third century
Megillah(lit., "scroll): Biblical scroll containing the story of the *Purim miracle, read in public on that festival
melamed (pl., melamdim)an elementary *Torah teacher
mesirus nefesh(lit., "sacrifice of the soul"): the willingness to sacrifice oneself, either through martyrdom, or through a selfless life, for the sake of the *Torah and its commandments
middos(lit., "attributes"): (a) the six *sefiros inferior to the intellectual attributes of *Chabad; (b) their corresponding human emotional attributes or character traits
Midrashone of the classical collections of the Sages' homiletical teachings on the *Torah, on the non-literal level
mikveh (pl., mikvos)a ritual bath in which a person immerses as part of the transition from impurity to purity, or from a lower state of holiness to a higher state
Minchah(lit., "the offering"): afternoon prayer service (*Siddur, p. 96ff.)
minyan(lit., "the number"; pl., minyonim): (a) ten adult male Jews; (b) a quorum for public prayer, consisting of ten such Jews; (c) a room where the minyan prays
Mishnahthe germinal statements of law elucidated by the *Gemara, together with which they collectively constitute the *Talmud; any one such statement is likewise called a Mishnah
misnaged (pl., misnagdim)opponent of *Chassidus, either as an individual, or as a member of an organized opposition group
mitzvah(lit., "commandment"; pl., mitzvos): (a) one of the 613 commandments; (b) in a larger sense, any religious obligation or meritorious act
Moreinu"Our Master"; title prefacing the proper name of a particularly important rabbi or scholar
Motzoei Shabbosthe night following the *Shabbos day
mussar(a) words of censure or admonishment; (b) Jewish philosophic works dealing with personal conduct and character, and methods for self-improvement in these areas
Nasi(lit., "prince"; pl., Nesi'im): in *Chabad chassidic usage, refers to the Baal Shem Tov, the Maggid, or one of the *Rebbeim
niggun (pl., niggunim)melody, esp. one in the *chassidic style (usually without words) used in Divine service
NissanHeb. month corresponding to March-April
parshahportion of the *Torah read publicly each week
Parshas...(a) the *parshah of...; (b) the week during which the named parshah is read
perushimsee porush
Pesachthe Passover Festival, occurring on 15 *Nissan, celebrating the Exodus from Egypt
pilpul (pl., pilpulim)a complex scholarly dissertation
porush(lit., "one who keeps himself apart"; pl., perushim): (a) an ascetic and chaste individual; (b) one who practices celibacy
Poskim(lit., "deciders"): (a) works of applied Jewish law; (b) the authors of these works
Purim(lit., "Lots"): joyous festival falling on 14 *Adar, commemorating the miraculous rescue of the Jews of the Persian Empire from a wicked plot to exterminate them; as part of the celebration, children often perform a play
Rabbeinu"our Rebbe" or "our Master"; title prefacing the proper name of a very important rabbi
rabbonimsee rav
Ramac(acronym for R. Moshe Cordovero; c. 1522 - 1570): one of the foremost 16th century *Kabbalists in *Eretz Yisrael, and an older colleague (possibly also a mentor) of the *AriZal
Rambam(acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon; 1135-1204): Maimonedes, one of the foremost Jewish thinkers of the Middle Ages; his Mishneh Torah is one of the pillars of *Halachah, and his Guide for the Perplexed, one of the classics of Jewish philosophy
Rashi(acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki; 1040-1105): author of the foremost commentaries on the Bible and *Talmud; his commentary on the Talmud is traditionally printed together with the text
rav(pl., rabbonim) the rabbi of a community or congregation
Rav"Rabbi"; used as a title prefacing a proper name
Reb(a) a short form of "*Rebbe," used as a title prefacing a proper name; (b) colloq., used with the name of any adult male, approx. equivalent to the English "Mister"
Rebbe(Yid. pronunciation of, "my teacher [or master]"; pl., Rebbeim): *tzaddik who serves as spiritual guide to a following of *chassidim; see *Chassidus
Rebbetzin(Yid.): (a) wife of a rabbi or *Rebbe; (b) a woman of great spiritual achievements in her own right
Reishis Chochmah(lit., "the Beginning of Wisdom"): 16th century book on *mussar and *avodah in the light of *Kabbalah, by R. Eliyahu de Vidas (16th century *Kabbalist, a disciple of *Ramac)
Rishonim(a) the "Earlier Sages," who flourished from the mid-eleventh to the mid-sixteenth centuries; (b) works written by these sages
Rosh Chodesh(lit., "head of the month"): New Moon, i.e., one or two semi-festive days at the beginning of the month
Rosh HaShanah(lit., "head of the year"): the Jewish New Year festival, falling on 1 and 2 *Tishrei
rosh yeshivah (pl., roshei yeshivah)(a) senior lecturer at a *yeshivah; (b) when capitalized, the dean of a yeshivah
ruach hakodeshspirit of prophecy
sefer (pl., seforim)a [sacred] text
Sefer HaMefouar(lit., "Book of the Magnificent"): book on *mussar by R. Yehudah Kolatz (fl. 15th cent.)
Sefer HaPardes(lit., "Book of the Orchard"): principal written work on *Kabbalah by *Ramac
sefiros*Kabbalistic term for the ten Divine Emanations, or attributes of G-dliness that serve as a medium between His infinite light and our limited framework of reference, or between the supernal worlds, and our lower world (see also Chabad; middos)
seforimsee sefer
Selichos(lit., "pardons"): (a) special prayers recited before dawn during the week preceding *Rosh Hashanah; (b) the days during which these prayers are recited; (c) special prayers recited on fast days and *Yom Kippur Katan
Seven-Seventy (or "770")familiar name for the building at 770 Eastern Parkway, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York, housing: (a) the central headquarters of the worldwide Lubavitcher Chassidic Movement; (b) the Previous Rebbe's residence from 1940 until his passing in 1950; (c) the Rebbe's private office and secretariat, and (later) also his residence; (d) the present home of the central Lubavitcher *Yeshivah, *Tomchei Temimim
Shabbos(lit., "[day of] rest"; pl., Shabbasos): the Sabbath
Shabbos Bereishisthe Shabbos following Simchas Torah
Shabbos Mevorchim(lit., "the Shabbos when we bless"): the Shabbos preceding *Rosh Chodesh, when a special blessing for the new month is recited during the morning services, and the day when Rosh Chodesh will fall is announced (*Siddur, p. 191)
Shabbos Selichosthe Shabbos preceding the week when Selichos are recited
Shabbos Teshuvahthe Shabbos falling in between *Rosh HaShanah and *Yom Kippur
Shacharismorning prayer service (*Siddur, p. 12ff.)
shammes(Yid. pronunciation of "shamash"; lit., "assistant"): (a) the custodian of a *shul or *beis hamedrash; (b) the personal assistant of a rabbi or other communal official
Shavuos(lit., "weeks"): festival occurring in very late spring, celebrating the giving of the *Torah on Mt. Sinai, and the sacrificial service of the new wheat crop in Temple times
shechitahslaughtering of cattle or fowl in the ritually-prescribed manner, for kosher consumption
Shehechiyanublessing (who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season") recited at various festive or otherwise happy occasions, at important events, and when hearing good news (*Siddur, p. 87, int. al.)
Shemaa text consisting of three passages of the *Torah, to be recited during the morning and evening prayer services, and before retiring at night, beginning with the words *Shema Yisrael (*Siddur, p. 46, int. al.); also recited as part of a deathbed confession
Shema Yisrael...("Hear, O Israel..."): the opening words of the *Shema
Shemini Atzeresthe eighth day of the *Sukkos festival, a holiday in its own right, celebrated with great joy
Shemoneh Esrei(lit., "Eighteen [blessings]"): the central feature of the regular prayer services, recited silently while standing; at public prayer, it is then repeated aloud by the *chazan, except at *Maariv (e.g., *Siddur, p. 50ff.)
Shlita(acronym for Sheyichye LeOrech Yomim Tovim Amein): abbreviation placed after a person's name, expressing the wish: "may he be preserved in life for many good days, Amein"
shochet (pl., shochtim)ritual slaughterer, who slaughters and inspects cattle and fowl in the ritually-prescribed manner, for kosher consumption
shul(Yid.): a synagogue; in chassidic circles, the terms shul and *beis hamedrash are often used interchangeably
Shulchan Aruch(lit., "the set table"): (a) the standard Code of Jewish Law compiled by R. Yosef Karo (1488-1575); (b) a later version, compiled by the Alter Rebbe
ShvatHeb. month corresponding to January-February
Siddur(lit., "order [of prayers]"): prayer book; page references in the present work are to the edition (with English translation) entitled Siddur Tehillat HaShem (Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, N.Y., 1979)
side-room(Heb. cheder sheini, lit., "second room"): a smaller room adjoining the main room of a *chassidic *shul or *beis hamedrash, where people may study, pray, or meditate at length, undisturbed by the activity and noise of the public study and prayer sessions
Simchas Torah(lit., "the Rejoicing of the *Torah"): festival following *Sukkos, on which the public reading of the Torah is annually concluded and recommenced; observed with great joy, singing and dancing, and a procession with the *Torah scrolls (*Siddur, p. 335ff.)
sitterssenior students studying at the *beis hamedrash of the *Rebbe or of one oh the prominent *chassidic elders, not at a formal *yeshivah
SivanHeb. month corresponding to May-June
sukkah(lit., "booth"): temporary dwelling in which Jews live during the festival of *Sukkos
Sukkos(lit., "Booths"): seven-day festival beginning on 15 *Tishrei, taking its name from the temporary dwelling in which Jews live during this period
Tachanun(lit., "supplication": Ar.): prayer recited on weekdays at the *Shacharis and *Minchah services (e.g., *Siddur, p. 61ff); it is omitted even on minor festivals and certain other special occasions
taharah(lit., "purification"): ritual washing and dressing of the deceased in preparation for burial
talliswoolen cloak with *tzitzis, worn during prayer
Talmudthe basic compendium of Jewish law, thought, and Biblical commentary; its tractates mainly comprise the discussions collectively known as the *Gemara, which elucidate the germinal statements of law collectively known as the *Mishnah; when unspecified, refers to the Talmud *Bavli
Tanachacronym for Torah (i.e., the *Chumash), Nevi'im (the Prophets), Kesuvim (the Scriptures); the Bible
Tannaim(lit., "teachers"): Sages whose opinions are quoted in the *Mishnah and other works of that period
Tanyathe Alter Rebbe's basic exposition of *Chabad *Chassidus; "Tanya" is the initial word of the book, which is also called Likkutei Amarim ("Collected Discourses") and Sefer shel Beinonim ("The Book of the Intermediates")
tefillinsmall black leather cubes containing parchment scrolls with *Shema Yisrael and other Biblical passages hand written by a scribe; they are bound to the arm and forehead by leather straps, and worn by Jewish men at weekday morning prayers
Tehillim(lit., "praises"): the Book of Psalms
teshuvah(lit., "return [to G-d]"): repentance
TevesHeb. month corresponding to December-January
Tikkun Chazos(lit., "midnight service"): an optional devotional exercise lamenting the destruction of the *Beis HaMikdash, and the subsequent exile of the Divine Presence
TishreiHeb. month corresponding to September-October
Tomchei Temimim(lit., "Supporters of the Perfect Ones"): name of the central *yeshivah established 1897 in *Lubavitch, the succeeding central yeshivos, and their branches
Torah(lit. "law"): (a) G-d's revealed truth, communicated as the Written Law (the Bible), and the Oral Law (the oral tradition communicated by our Sages throughout history, much of it set down in the *Talmud); (b) a handwritten parchment scroll containing the five books of the *Chumash, used for public reading during the prayer services on *Shabbos, Monday, Thursday, festivals, and fast days
Toras HaChassidusthe philosophy and literature of *Chassidus
Tosafos(lit., "supplements"): classical commentaries on the *Talmud, composed by the descendants and disciples of *Rashi, which began to appear in the mid-twelfth century and are traditionally printed together with the text of the Talmud
Turim(lit., "rows"; full name: Arba'ah Turim, "the Four Rows"): a four volume codification of *Halachah, containing the legal rulings of all *Rishonim, compiled by R. Yaakov be Asher (c. 1270 - c. 1343); the *Shulchan Aruch and many later codifications of Halachah follow the format of the Turim
tzaddik (pl., tzaddikim)(a) completely righteous individual; (b) *Rebbe
tzitzis(a) fringes on the four corners of the *tallis worn by males (cf. Bamidbar 15:37-40); (b) a four-cornered garment with such fringes, usually worn underneath one's outer clothing
Tzom Gedaliah"Fast Day of Gedaliah": the day following *Rosh HaShanah (postponed to Sunday if it falls on *Shabbos); the fast commemorates the assassination of Gedaliah ben Achikam, governor of the First Jewish Commonwealth in the Holy Land; after this assassination, Jewish autonomy came to an end (see II Melachim 25:22-26; Yirmiyahu 40:5ff)
VaYechal*Torah passage read in public during fast days (*Siddur, p. 366)
yartzeit(lit., "time of year": Yid.): the anniversary of a person's (usually a parent's) death
yarmulke(Yid.): a skullcap worn by Jewish boys and men to signify reverence for G-d; many wear the yarmulke on informal occasions, and substitute a hat during prayer and other formal occasions; *chassidim wear both a yarmulke and hat for formal use
yechidusprivate audience (more of an encounter of souls) at which a *chassid seeks guidance and enlightenment from his *Rebbe
Yerushalmithe Jerusalem *Talmud, compiled in *Eretz Yisrael and edited at the end of the fourth century
yeshivah (pl., yeshivos)*Torah academy for advanced students
Yetzirah(lit., "the [World of] Formation"): the third (in descending order) of the *Four Worlds described in *Kabbalah; the abode of the lower classes of angelic beings and of the souls of ordinary Jews
Yom Kippurthe Day of Atonement, solemn fast day falling on 10 *Tishrei and climaxing the annual penitential period
Yom Kippur Katan(lit., the "little" Yom Kippur): the eve of *Rosh Chodesh (or the preceding Thursday, if Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos or Sunday), observed in many communities as a minor fast day during which special prayers are recited and *VaYechal is read
Yom Tov(lit., "Good Day"): a festival
ZelmeleYid. familiar form of the name Zalman
Zohar(lit., "Radiance"): title of the classic mystical work from which the teachings of *Kabbalah are derived

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