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Foreword

Maamar Eichah Yoshvah Bodad Hair Rabosi Am

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim Arenu Niflaos

Maamar VeNachah Alov Ruach HaShem

Maamar Vihayah Eikev Tishmaun

Maamar Beela Hamaves Lanetzach

Maamar Hachodesh Hazeh Lachem

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim Arenu Niflaos

Maamar Vihayah Bayom Hahu

Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders Of Chabad-Lubavitch

Glossary

Anticipating The Redemption - Volume 2

Glossary

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  Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders Of Chabad-Lubavitch 

An asterisk indicates a cross reference within this Glossary.

All non-English entries are Hebrew unless otherwise indicated.

alef the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet
Asiyah, the World of(lit. "the World of Action, or Making"): the lowest of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence which relates directly to our material world
Atik [Yomin](lit. "ancient days"): the inner dimension of *Kesser, a level which transcends the entire scheme of the ten *Sefiros
Atzilus(lit. "emanation"): the highest of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence which, although encompassing attributes which have a specific definition, is completely at one with the Or Ein Sof
avodah(lit. "work" or "service"): Divine service, more specifically, the service of prayer
baal teshuvah(lit. "master of return"; pl. baalei teshuvah): a person who turns to G-d in repentance
Beis HaMikdash (pl. Batei HaMikdash)The Temple in Jerusalem
beinoni(lit. "intermediate man"): an individual whose spiritual labors have brought him to a level at which he never sins in thought, word or deed, despite his still-active evil inclination; see Tanya, ch. 12
Beriah(lit. "creation"): the second of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence which represents the first beginnings of a consciousness of self
bihischadshus a new and incremental element to the existing gestalt
bip'shitus the initial, inherent object of one's conceptual gestalt
Binah(lit. "understanding"): the second of the Ten *Sefiros, or Divine emanations; the second stage of the intellectual process, the power that develops abstract conception, giving it breadth and depth
bittulself-nullification, a commitment to G-d and divine service that transcends self-concern
bittul hayesh the negation of one's selfhood
bittul bimetzius utter and complete self-nullification
Chabad(acronym for the Hebrew words meaning "wisdom, understanding, and knowledge"): the approach to Chassidism which filters its spiritual and emotional power through the intellect; a synonym for Chabad is *Lubavitch, the name of the town where this movement originally flourished
chassid a pious, kind-hearted person, whose commitment extends beyond the requirement of the law
Chassidus the body of Chassidic thought and philosophy
Chessed(lit. "kindness," or "grace"): a term used to refer to the Divine attribute which parallels the abovementioned human qualities and thus is associated with the dispersion of G-dly light and energy to lower levels of existence
dalet the fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet
echad(lit. "one"): G-d's oneness which permeates all existence
EichahThe Book of Lamentations
Ein Sof ("infinite")used to refer to the infinite dimension of G-dliness
Eretz Yisrael the land of Israel
Eitz Chayim one of the fundamental texts of *Kabbalah based on the teachings of the AriZal authored by R. Chayim Vital
Gan Eden(lit. "the Garden of Eden"): a term used to refer to the abode of the souls in the spiritual realms in their afterlife
Gevurah(lit. "might"): a term used to refer to the Divine attribute which parallels the abovementioned human quality and thus is associated with the holding back of Divine revelation and the restricting of the dispersion of Divine light to lower levels of existence
Iggeres HaKodesh the fourth portion of Tanya, consisting of a collection of pastoral letters sent by the Alter Rebbe and included in the Tanya by his sons
ikvesa diMeshicha the last generation(s) before the Redemption, when *Mashiach's approaching footsteps can be heard
iskafia(lit. "bending back"): the Divine service of subjugating and subordinating the material nature of the body and the animal soul
ishopcha(lit. "transformation"): the Divine service of transforming the animal soul to good
Kabbalah(lit. "received tradition"): the Jewish mystical tradition
kabbalas ol(lit. "the acceptance of [G-d's] yoke"): an unswerving, selfless commitment to carrying out the will of G-d
kav(lit. "line"): the vector of Divine light whose source is the Or Ein Sof that existed before the *tzimtzum and which shines into the "empty cavity" left after the tzimtzum
keilim(lit. "vessels"): the powers which enclothe Divine light and express it in a limited form; the relationship between the keilim and the oros ("lights") is compared to that between the body and the soul
kelipah(lit. "rind" or "shell"; pl. kelipos): used figuratively (on a personal or universal level) to signify an outer covering which conceals the light within; hence, the unholy side of the universe
Kerias Shemathe recitation of the Shema
Kesser(lit. "crown"): the sublime level of divine emanation which transcends the scheme of the Ten *Sefiros; in man's spiritual personality it is the source of the corresponding "superconscious" faculties of pleasure and will
Likkutei Torah a collection of Chassidic discourses by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (see Alter Rebbe)
Lubavitch(lit. "town of love"; Rus.): townlet in White Russia which from 1813-1915 was the center of *Chabad *Chassidism, and whose name has remained a synonym for it
maamar (pl. maamarim) a formal Chassidic discourse
Malchiyos a blessing consisting of verses reflecting God's Kingship; one of the blessings of the Musaf service on Rosh HaShanah
Malchus the attribute of Kingship, the dimension in each spiritual realm that makes possible the transition to a lower realm of existence
Mashiach(lit. "the anointed one"): the Messiah
mashpia(lit. "the source of influence"): in the context of the maamar, this term refers to a teacher who imparts intellectual influence to his students
mekabel(lit. "recipient"): in the context of the maamar, this term refers to a student who receives the intellectual input of his teacher
memale kol almin(lit. "filling the worlds"): G-d's immanent light which enclothes itself within creation
mesirus nefesh(lit. "sacrifice of the soul"): the willingness to sacrifice oneself, either through martyrdom, or through a selfless life, for the sake of the Torah and its commandments
Midrash the classic collection of the Sages' homiletical teachings on the Bible
Mishnah (pl. mishnayos)the first compilation of the Oral Law authored by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi (approx. 200 c.e.); the germinal statements of law elucidated by the Gemara, together with which they constitute the *Talmud; when not capitalized, a single statement of law from this work
mitzvah(lit. "commandment"; pl. mitzvos): one of the 613 Commandments; in a larger sense, any religious obligation
Nissanthe first month of the Jewish year according to certain reckonings, or the seventh when counting the months from Tishrei; the month which includes the holiday of Passover
nitzachon(lit. "victory"): one of the Ten *Sefiros; in our personal sphere, this refers to a steadfast dedication to achieving one's purpose
Or Ein Sof G-d's infinite light
P'nimiyus HaTorah the inner dimension of the Torah; the Torah's mystic secrets
Pri Eitz Chayim one of the fundamental texts of *Kabbalah based on the teachings of the AriZal authored by R. Chayim Vital
Rambam(acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon; 1135-1204): Maimonides, one of the foremost Jewish thinkers of the Middle Ages; his Mishneh Torah is one of the pillars of Jewish law, and his Guide to the Perplexed, one of the classics of Jewish philosophy
Ramban(acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (1194-1270): Nachmanides. a sage whose commentaries on the Torah and the *Talmud are Torah classics
Rashi(acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki; 1040-1105): the author of the foremost commentaries to the Torah and the Talmud; leader of the Jewish community in Alsace-Lorraine
Rebbe(lit. "my teacher [or master]" pl. Rebbeim): saintly Torah leader who serves as spiritual guide to a following of Chassidim
Seder Hahishtalshelusthe chainlike progression of spiritual worlds; the spiritual cosmos
Sefirah (pl. Sefiros)the Kabbalistic term for the attributes of G-dliness which serve as a medium between His infinite light and our limited framework of reference and which are the source of the corresponding ten faculties of the human soul
Shechinah the Divine Presence
Shabbos the Sabbath
Shema the fundamental Jewish prayer which we are obligated to recite each day, in the evening and in the morning
shofar the ram's horn sounded on Rosh HaShanah and during the month of Elul in preparation for that holiday
Shofros a blessing consisting of verses reflecting the importance of sounding the *shofar; one of the blessings of the Musaf service on Rosh HaShanah
Shulchan Aruch(lit. "a set table"): the standard Code of Jewish Law compiled by R. Yosef Caro in the mid-sixteenth century; also used to refer to later codes; e.g., the Shulchan Aruch HaRav compiled by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi
sichah (pl., sichos)an informal Torah talk delivered by a Rebbe
sitra achra(lit. "the other side"; Aram.): the forces of evil in the universe; a synonym for *kelipah
sovev kol almin(lit. "encompassing the worlds"): G-d's transcendent light
Talmud the basic compendium of Jewish law, thought, and Biblical commentary; when unspecified refers to the Talmud Bavli, the edition developed and edited in Babylonia at the end of the fifth century C.E.
Tanya the classic text of *Chabad Chassidic thought authored by the Alter Rebbe
Tishah BeAv(lit. "the Ninth of Av"): fast commemorating the Destruction of both the First and the Second Temples
Tishreithe first month of the Jewish year according to certain reckonings, or the seventh when counting the months from Nissan; the month which includes Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkos
teshuvah(lit. "return [to G-d]"): repentance
Tiferes(lit. "beauty"): the Sefirah of the third vector which combines *Chessed and *Gevurah, fusing the influence of these opposite qualities by revealing a light that transcends them both
tzaddik (pl. tzaddikim)righteous man
tzedakah charity
tzimtzumthe process of Divine self-contraction and self-limitation which makes possible the concept of limited, worldly existence
tzitzis the fringes worn at the corners of four-cornered garments
yachid(lit. "unique"): G-d's singular oneness which transcends all existence
yahrzeit the anniversary of a person's passing
yetzer hora the evil inclination
Yetzirah(lit. "formation"): the third of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence in which the limited nature of the created beings takes on form and definition
yud the tenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet
Zichronosa blessing consisting of verses recalling G-d's positive recollection of the Jewish people; one of the blessings of the Musaf service on Rosh HaShanah
Zohar(lit. "radiance"): the classic text of *Kabbalah

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