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Foreword

Maamar Eichah Yoshvah Bodad Hair Rabosi Am

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim Arenu Niflaos

Maamar VeNachah Alov Ruach HaShem

Maamar Vihayah Eikev Tishmaun

Maamar Beela Hamaves Lanetzach

Maamar Hachodesh Hazeh Lachem

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim Arenu Niflaos

Maamar Vihayah Bayom Hahu

Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders Of Chabad-Lubavitch

Glossary

Anticipating The Redemption - Volume 2

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim Arenu Niflaos

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  Maamar Eichah Yoshvah Bodad Hair Rabosi AmMaamar VeNachah Alov Ruach HaShem  

KUNTRES ACHARON YUD-ALEF NISSAN, 5747
(Sefer HaMaamarim Meluket, Vol. II, p. 37ff.)

By the Grace of G-d
Yud-Alef Nissan, 5742

"As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders."[1]

As is well known, the Zohar[2] {as explained in the maamarim of the Rebbeim[3]} focuses on the fact that this verse uses the plural form "days." [It raises the question:] The exodus from Egypt took only one day, [as mentioned in the verse] recalling the exodus:[4] ohrmn .rtn l,tm ouh ,t rufz, ignk "So that you will remember the day of your exodus from the land of Egypt". Why then does the above verse mention "days," using a plural form?

It is also necessary to understand the meaning of the verse "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders." According to the simple meaning of the verse, the intent is that the Future Redemption, may it come speedily in our days, led by Mashiach, will be characterized by overt miracles as was the redemption from Egypt. The comparison is, however, problematic. It is explained in several verses and statements of our Sages[5] that the Future Redemption will be [unique, being] a complete redemption that will not be followed by exile. This is not true with regard to the exodus from Egypt. Thus the Future Redemption will surpass the Redemption from Egypt. For this reason, according to one opinion, in the Era of the Redemption, we will no longer recall the redemption from Egypt.[6] And even the opinion which maintains that the redemption from Egypt will be recalled in that Future era6 requires a special teaching [to make this known. One may infer that the natural tendency will be to ignore the exodus from Egypt because of the great revelations that will characterize the Future Redemption].

Why then does the verse state: "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders," implying that the advantage of the Future Redemption is that it will be characterized by overt miracles like the exodus? Indeed, the verse indicates that the wonders that characterized the exodus from Egypt are the beginning and the source for the wonders of the Era of the Redemption. This implies that there is an advantage to the exodus from Egypt over the Future Redemption. [How is this possible - and why is the above comparison made - if the Future Redemption will surpass the exodus?]

II

The core of the explanation is that there are two interpretations to the verse: "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders":

  1. that the Future Redemption will resemble the redemption from Egypt and will be characterized by overt miracles as that redemption was; and

  2. that the miracles that will characterize the Future Redemption will be considered wondrous even when compared to the miracles of the exodus from Egypt.[7] The intent is that although in general the miracles of the Future Redemption will resemble those which accompanied the redemption from Egypt (as in the simple meaning of the verse), there will be a [distinct] advantage to the miracles of the Future Redemption, to the extent that these miracles will be considered wondrous when compared to the miracles of the exodus.

To explain the advantage of the miracles that will characterize the Future Redemption over the miracles of the exodus from Egypt in terms of Kabbalistic terminology: It is well known[8] that to take the Jews out of Egypt, [G-d] had to take them out of the 49 gates of impurity. That is why the days of the Counting of the Omer begin directly after the exodus from Egypt, for on each of the days of this Counting, we leave one of the gates of impurity.

The departure from these gates of impurity comes about by drawing down the Gates of Binah ("Understanding"). Therefore, the exodus from Egypt is mentioned 50 times in the Torah, corresponding to the 50 Gates of Binah.[9]

As is well known, there are several levels of the 50 Gates of Binah.[10] [For example, there are] the 50 Gates of Binah as they are drawn down into Malchus, [as it is said:][11] "From the side of the Yovel (i.e., Binah), they are drawn to Malchus." On a higher level, [these Gates] exist as they are [all] included in the fiftieth Gate, the level of Kesser ([and more particularly,] within Kesser itself, the level of Atik).

On this basis, we can understand why the miracles that will characterize the Future Redemption will be wondrous when compared to the miracles of the exodus from Egypt. For in the exodus from Egypt, the 50 Gates of Binah which were drawn down refer to the level of Binah (as the Gates were drawn down through the level of Malchus). In the Era of the Redemption, by contrast, the influence will come from the Gates of Binah as they are included within Kesser.[12] Moreover, within Kesser itself, the influence will come from the level of Atik, and within Atik itself, from the inner dimensions of Atik.12

These [spiritual heights are alluded to in the prophecies which describe] Mashiach, saying:[13] "Behold, My servant shall prosper; he shall become exalted and uplifted, [reaching] very high peaks." The word stn [rendered as "very"] (which is used to describe Mashiach) refers to the inner dimensions of Atik.[14] As the Pri Eitz Chayim states,[15] all the Divine influences received in the present era are from the external dimensions of Atik, while in the Era of the Redemption, the Divine revelation and influence will come from the inner dimensions of Atik.

Despite [these differences], the verse compares the miracles that characterize the Era of the Redemption to the miracles of the exodus as in the simple interpretation of the verse, that the "wonders" which "I will show [the people]" will resemble those of "the days of your exodus from Egypt." For the exodus from Egypt was also characterized by very elevated revelations, as explained in the series of maamarim from the year 5672 [16] with regard to the phrase[17] "until the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, Himself, in His glory, revealed Himself to them." The phrase "Himself, in His glory" refers to very exalted levels. In the exodus from Egypt, however, these levels were revealed as they were enclothed in the level of Malchus.[18]

[This spiritual sequence] is alluded to in the verse:[19] "And G-d skipped over the entrance." "The entrance" refers to the level of Malchus. In the Era of the Redemption, by contrast, these [elevated] levels will be revealed without being enclothed [in any intermediaries], as it is written:[20] "Your Master will no longer conceal Himself."

III

Nevertheless, [the question raised at the outset remains unanswered:] In the verse "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders," why are the miracles of the Future Redemption compared to the miracles of the exodus? In particular, this applies according to the opinion that the exodus from Egypt will also be recalled in the Era of the Redemption.[21]

[This opinion requires explanation.] Since the miracles of the Future Redemption will surpass those of the exodus, why will the miracles of the exodus be recalled at that time? As is well known, the explanation (as given in the maamar entitled Kimei Tzeischa delivered by my revered father-in-law, the Rebbe,[22] is that the redemption from Egypt opened the way for all subsequent redemptions (from all the exiles that would follow the Egyptian exile). This also includes the Future Redemption.

[It is true that] the Future Redemption will surpass the redemption [from Egypt. To cite a parallel:] It is well known that the exodus from Egypt was a preparation for the giving of the Torah, as it is written:[23] "When you take the people out of Egypt, you will serve G-d on this mountain." Now the essential dimension of [the people's] redemption and freedom came about at the time of the giving of the Torah. For until the giving of the Torah, there was a [Divine] decree preventing the spiritual from descending to the physical and the physical from ascending to the spiritual.[24] And thus until the giving of the Torah (even after the exodus from Egypt), the material realms had not truly [experienced] freedom and redemption.[25] Nevertheless, at the time of the exodus from Egypt, the potential was granted for the redemption (the nullification of the decree) that occurred at the time of the giving of the Torah.

This also applies with regard to the Future Redemption. For the redemption from Egypt also generated the potential for the Future Redemption, for the giving of the Torah was a microcosm of the Future Redemption.[26] Nevertheless, at the time of the giving of the Torah, this revelation was only temporary, while in the Era of the Redemption, this revelation will be continuous and timeless.

[The reason for this difference is that] at the time of the giving of the Torah, the revelation came from above alone, while [in the Era of the Redemption,] the revelation will also resound within the material world itself.[27] For [in that era,] the created beings will have reached a state of ultimate refinement and perfection, and they will be vessels for G-dliness. [Mankind will] grasp the knowledge of their Creator to the [full] extent of [our] mortal potential,[28] creating a "perfect place,"[29] for the manifestation of the Or Ein Sof, G-d's infinite light, that transcends our mortal potential.

IV

On this basis, [we can also resolve the question why the verse uses the plural form] "the days of your exodus from Egypt." For the entire period beginning with the first redemption [the exodus] from Egypt, until the ultimate Redemption, may it come speedily, in our days, is "the days of your exodus from Egypt," as explained in the maamar [of my revered father-in-law, the Rebbe].[30] For the manner in which the redemption from Egypt opened the way for the Future Redemption is that each and every day (from the time of the exodus from Egypt until the Future Redemption), the exodus from Egypt is realized in a more elevated [and complete] fashion, until its most consummate peaks which will be reached with the coming of the Future Redemption.

To explain: Our Sages state[31] that "In each and every generation - and on each and every day[32] - a person is obligated to see himself as if he left Egypt - that day."32 For every day, a person must relive the exodus from Egypt. In particular, this applies while reciting the Shema, for as the Alter Rebbe explains in Tanya,[33] our Sages instituted the recollection of the exodus from Egypt[34] in the midst of the recitation of the Shema because the two (- the recitation of the Shema and the exodus from Egypt -) are [fundamentally] the same.[35]

This concept (that the recitation of the Shema should reflect one's Divine service in reliving the exodus) applies also with regard to the recitation of the Shema at night. As the Rambam explains,[36] we read the passage concerning tzitzis at night in the evening Kerias Shema - although the mitzvah of tzitzis does not apply at night - because it mentions the exodus from Egypt.

On this basis, we can understand the plural usage of the word "days" in the phrase "as in the days of your exodus from Egypt": Although [the Jews] left Egypt in one day, through mentioning the exodus (that occurred originally in one day) every day, the exodus [becomes a continuous activity]. Every day becomes one of "the days of your exodus from Egypt." For every day, we transcend more subtle and elevated constraints. Indeed, we adopt a stance which breaks through [all constraints], transcending entirely all limitations.

This will lead to the ultimate breakthrough, the coming of the true and complete Redemption led by Mashiach, of whom it is said:[37] "He who breaks through shall proceed before them." This is also reflected in the fact that Mashiach will be a descendant of King David, and moreover, one of the signs [with which we will be able to identify] Mashiach is that he will "delve deeply into the study of the Torah and, like David, his ancestor, observe its mitzvos... and fight the wars of G-d."[38] For David is a descendant of Peretz[39] of whom it is said:[40] "With what strength have you broken through!" alluding to the potential to break through all barriers, limitations, and constraints.

V

This sequence of redemption (begins with the actual exodus from Egypt, [is reinforced by] the Divine service of remembering the exodus every day, and continues until the consummation of the redemption when "He who breaks through shall proceed before them"). [This sequence] is repeated [in microcosm] every day.

For at the beginning of the day, before prayer, a person is beset by constraints, the constraints and limitations of the body. In this vein, our Sages[41] comment on the verse:[42] "Separate yourselves from the man whose soul is in his nostrils. Of what importance is he?" Our Sages state: "Do not read 'Of what importance is he?' Read 'He is considered as an altar.' "[43]

At the beginning of the day, the soul is only "in [one's] nostrils," i.e., it has not spread out throughout the body. Therefore, the person is like an altar, the most powerful expression of the constraints and limits of the body's material nature. Therefore, the first stage of Divine service is iskafia, subjugating and subordinating the material nature of the body and the animal soul, and overcoming them and the forces of evil to the extent that, against their natural tendency, even the body and the animal soul consent to serve G-d and assist in these efforts. All this, however, is still considered as iskafia.[44]

Afterwards, the person proceeds to the level of ishopcha, transforming the animal soul. [This phase of service also proceeds in degrees.] He begins with the service of "My heart is vacant within me,"[45] [i.e., the yetzer hora does not exert any negative influence]. Then he proceeds to "love G-d, your L-rd, with all your heart,"[46] [interpreted by our Sages[47] to mean] "with both your inclinations," that the yetzer hora itself becomes transformed into a positive [force]. To cite a parallel: complete teshuvah, i.e., teshuvah motivated by love, transforms sins into actual merits.[48]

These two dimensions of our day-to-day Divine service (iskafia and ishopcha) reflect the two phases of the exodus from Egypt and the Future Redemption. With regard to the exodus from Egypt, it is written:[49] "That the nation fled." [Why did the Jews flee? Not because of fear of the Egyptians,] but because the evil within themselves was still powerful, and it was necessary for them to flee from it.[50] [This parallels the service of] iskafia.

With regard to the Era of the Redemption, [it is written]:[51] "And I will cause the spirit of impurity to depart from the land" (paralleling the rung "My heart is vacant within me"). Moreover, [we will merit fulfillment of the prophecy:][52] "Then I will make the nations pure of speech, that they all call on the name of G-d, to serve Him with a single purpose," for even the gentile nations will serve G-d. [And it is written:][53] "And foreigners will arise and pasture your sheep."

[These developments will not be confined to the human kingdom, but] will also affect animals, [as it is written:][54] "I shall remove wild beasts from the earth," which is interpreted to mean:[55] "Their preying tendency will be removed." In that Future era, wild animals will still exist, yet they will no longer cause harm. Indeed, they will become positive forces, used to assist Divine service, as indicated by the verse:[56] "A wolf will lie down with a lamb... and a lion will eat straw like cattle." This means that we will be able to receive benefit from a wolf like we do from a lamb, and from a lion like we do from cattle. Even snakes ([also mentioned in the above prophecy,] "the python" and "the serpent"[57]) will become "great facilitator[s]."[58] Not only will the snake provide us with assistance in our Divine service, that assistance will be "great," earning him the title "great facilitator."

VI

Although in general, the level of ishopcha greatly surpasses the level of iskafia, there is also an advantage to iskafia over ishopcha.[59] This [is reflected in the discussion] in Tanya[60] [of the verse,[61] "Then you shall... discern between... one who serves G-d, and one who serves Him not."] The title "one who serves G-d" is given only to a person who must hold in check and change his nature. A totally righteous man does not possess the advantage [of this thrust of Divine service].

It is the Divine service of iskafia alone which causes "the glory of the Holy One, blessed be He, to be revealed in all worlds,"[62] drawing down a light which reveals G-d's magnificence.[63] As explained in the series of maamarim entitled Basi LeGani,[64] this motif can be understood through an analogy of a mortal king who will squander his [most prized] treasures for the sake of victory in war. In ordinary times, not only are such treasures not used, but they are hidden from any eye. But during war, not only does [a king] open these treasure vaults, he squanders the treasures without curb or constraint, giving them to the simple soldiers so that they will be victorious in battle.[65]

To focus on the analogue in the spiritual realms: There is a rung [that is described as G-d's] treasure vault, which is hidden from any eye, [as indicated by the verse:][66] "No eye saw, but Yours, O G-d." In order to be victorious in the war against the yetzer [hora] through the service of iskafia, these treasures are also employed, and even squandered.

These treasures are given to the simple soldiers, because their Divine service is characterized by mesirus nefesh which transcends the boundaries and limits of intellect. For this reason, the treasure is "squandered" on them, without any curb or constraint.

Based on the above, we can appreciate why the exodus from Egypt will be remembered even in the Era of the Redemption, although the revelations of the Era of the Redemption will transcend the revelations ("wonders") that characterized the exodus. The level of [G-d's] treasure vault is drawn down for the sake of victory in the war. In the Era of the Redemption, [this will no longer be relevant,] because "I will cause the spirit of impurity to depart from the land." Therefore, in order to draw down the level of [G-d's] treasure vault [in] that Future era, the exodus from Egypt will be recalled, so that [our Divine service] will also possess the quality of iskafia. (As is true with regard to all the other matters, in the Era of the Redemption,) this Divine influence will reach consummate revelation; "Your Master will no longer conceal Himself."

VI

On this basis, we can understand the verse: "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders." The Future Redemption will be characterized by two positive thrusts: the quality of iskafia, "as in the days of your exodus from Egypt," and the quality of ishopcha, "I will show [the people] wonders."

[This will be brought about by] "our deeds and Divine service in the era of exile."[67] For in general, our Divine service in the era of exile is characterized by mesirus nefesh, which transcends all limits and bounds.[68] In the era of exile, and particularly, in the era of ikvesa diMeshicha - the time when Mashiach's approaching footsteps can be heard - there are hurdles, obstacles, and a multitude of challenges, including the challenge of "not being embarrassed when confronted by scoffers."[69] And despite these challenges, the Jews study the Torah and observe the mitzvos without any consideration [of the difficulties]. Indeed, even "the empty ones among you are as filled with mitzvos as a pomegranate is with seeds."[70] Not only do they observe the mitzvos, they are "filled with mitzvos."

This Divine service will enable the Jews to leave the exile "with great wealth,"[71] a great wealth of mitzvos, and a great wealth of Torah (for Torah study is also a mitzvah, indeed, it is equal to all the mitzvos[72]).

The [Jews'] great wealth of Torah and mitzvos will increase their merit, and thus will hasten the coming of the Redemption,[73] bringing about the time when "he [Mashiach] will come with the clouds of heaven."[74]

In the very near future, the true and complete Redemption will come. And then, "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt, I will show [the people] wonders." For the positive dimensions of both services, [iskafia and ishopcha,] will be manifest. Since the Redemption will be brought about by our Divine service in the era of exile, and in particular, in ikvesa diMeshicha, it will possess the advantage of iskafia as alluded to by the phrase "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt."

And yet, [we will also merit that] "I will show [the people] wonders," miracles that will be considered wondrous even when compared with the miracles that accompanied the exile. This includes also the miracles that accompanied the Splitting of the Sea. The Splitting of the Sea was accompanied by miracles of a most wondrous nature. Every Jew was able to point with his finger and say:[75] "This is my G-d and I will glorify Him." And "At the sea, even a maid servant witnessed revelations that surpassed [those granted to] the greatest of the prophets."

Nevertheless, this was "at the sea," i.e., enclothed in the attribute of Malchus,[76] {[as explained above] with regard to the revelations of the exodus (which preceded the Splitting of the Sea) which were associated with "the entrance," [another analogy for Malchus].[77]}

Moreover, the revelations of the Splitting of the Sea were of a temporary nature. For the revelation came about as a result [of G-d's] initiative and the material world was not [prepared to serve] as a medium for it. In general, [when compared with our personal Divine service, such revelations are described as] iskafia and not ishopcha (as explained with regard to the exodus in the context of the verse "the nation fled"[78]), for the revelations did not come about as a result of Divine service within this material realm.

In the Era of the Redemption, however, "I will show [the people] wonders": miracles that will be considered wondrous even when compared with the miracles of the exodus and the Splitting of the Red Sea. For the revelation will not be enclothed in any medium, and it will come about as a result of Divine service within this material realm. Moreover, it will also possess the advantage of "As in the days of your exodus from Egypt," [the Divine service of iskafia]. May this take place speedily, in our days, with the coming of Mashiach.

   

Notes:

  1. (Back to text) Michah 7:15.

  2. (Back to text) The inclusions to the Zohar, Vol. I, sec. 25; Vol. III, p. 176a.

  3. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Nach on this verse, secs. 3 and 7 (pp. 486-487); the maamar of this title, 5708 (Sefer HaMaamarim 5708, p. 159).

  4. (Back to text) Shmos 13:3; Devarim 16:3.

  5. (Back to text) Yirmeyahu 16:14-15; Yeshayahu 43:18-19; Berachos 12b; Tosafos, Pesachim 116b, Mechilta, Shmos 15:1; see also the maamar entitled Ki BiChipazon Yatzasa (Sefer HaMaamarim 5708, pp. 151-152).

  6. (Back to text) Berachos, loc. cit.

  7. (Back to text) Pri Eitz Chayim, Shaar Chag HaMatzos, ch. 7, quoted in Or HaTorah, loc. cit., sec. 8.

  8. (Back to text) Zohar Chadash, beginning of Parshas Yisro; see also Tikkunei Zohar, Tikkun 32.

  9. (Back to text) Pardes, Shaar 13 (Shaar HaShaarim), ch. 1. See also the gloss of Nitzutzei Zohar to the Zohar Chadash, loc. cit. (Miluim p. 124 ff.).

  10. (Back to text) See Or HaTorah, loc. cit., sec. 3.

  11. (Back to text) Mikdash Melech to Zohar, Vol. II, p. 40b; cited in Or HaTorah, Bo, p. 282.

  12. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Nach, loc. cit.

  13. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 52:13.

  14. (Back to text) Likkutei Torah, the conclusion of Shir HaShirim (p. 51b); Biurei HaZohar, Vayeishev 23a-b.

  15. (Back to text) Shaar HaKerias Shema, ch. 15; see Likkutei Torah, loc. cit.

  16. (Back to text) The series of maamarim entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu, 5672, Vol. II, p. 924; see also Sefer HaMaamarim 5672-5676, p. 67.

  17. (Back to text) The Haggadah, the section beginning VaYotzieinu and Matzah Zu.

  18. (Back to text) Zohar, Vol. II, p. 36a; Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim 15a; see the maamar entitled Kimei Tzeischa, 5708, ch. 11 (Sefer HaMaamarim 5708, p. 164a), et al.

  19. (Back to text) Shmos 12:23.

  20. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 30:20; see Tanya, ch. 36 (p. 46a) and the maamar Ki BiChipazon cited above.

  21. (Back to text) See the maamar entitled Kimei Tzeischa cited above.

  22. (Back to text) The maamar released in 5708, sec. 12 (Sefer HaMaamarim 5708, p. 164).

  23. (Back to text) Shmos 3:12. See the commentary of Rashi (based on Shmos Rabbah 3:4) to that verse.

  24. (Back to text) Shmos Rabbah 12:3; Midrash Tanchuma, Parshas Va'eira, sec. 15.

  25. (Back to text) [For the very fact that they remained confined within their natural limits implies that they were not yet freed.]

  26. (Back to text) Tanya, loc. cit.

  27. (Back to text) The series of maamarim entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu, 5672, Vol. II, pp. 930-931.

  28. (Back to text) Rambam, Mishneh Torah, the conclusion of Hilchos Melachim.

  29. (Back to text) See Zohar, Vol. III, p. 90b, [which states that "the Holy One, blessed be He, will be manifest only in a perfect place."] Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim 24a, [explains that because the material realm has been refined until it is "a perfect place," the revelation of G-dliness combines the advantages of revelation from above and the refinement of the material plane].

  30. (Back to text) The maamar entitled Kimei Tzeischa cited above, sec. 12.

  31. (Back to text) Pesachim 116b.

  32. (Back to text) This addition (explanation) was made by the Alter Rebbe in Tanya, ch. 47. Note the explanation in the note in the Haggadah Shel Pesach Im Likkutei Taamim, p. 618.

  33. (Back to text) The conclusion of ch. 47.

  34. (Back to text) [I.e., the mention of the exodus in the third paragraph of the Shema which speaks of the commandment to wear tzitzis.]

  35. (Back to text) [I.e., the intent in the recitation of the Shema is to come to an all-encompassing love for G-d that surpasses one's personal limits, an expression of mesirus nefesh in potentia. Similarly, Egypt is identified with the constraints that limit the expression of our G-dly natures. Indeed, the very Hebrew name for Egypt, Mitzrayim, relates to the word meitzarim, Hebrew for "boundary" or "limitation." The spiritual counterpart of the exodus from Egypt is the transcendence of our boundaries and limitations. This is identical with the intent of the Shema.]

  36. (Back to text) Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Kerias Shema 1:3; see Sichos Yud-Alef Nissan and Acharon Shel Pesach, 5742.

  37. (Back to text) Michah 2:13, Aggadas Bereishis, ch. 64; see also Bereishis Rabbah 85:14, and Rashi's commentary to Michah, loc. cit.

  38. (Back to text) Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Hilchos Melachim 11:4.

  39. (Back to text) Rus 4:18.

  40. (Back to text) Bereishis 38:39.

  41. (Back to text) Berachos 14a. See the series of maamarim entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu, 5672, Vol. II, secs. 360, 391, and the maamar entitled Lechah Dodi, 5689, sec. 3 (Sefer HaMaamarim Kuntreisim, Vol. I, p. 21a).

  42. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 2:22. [Our translation follows the interpretation of the verse in the above sources. Within the context of the passage of Yeshayahu, it would be translated differently.]

  43. (Back to text) [The Hebrew word "bamah," literally "high place," refers to an altar used to sacrifice to false divinities, or even to sacrifice to G-d, but in a manner which is forbidden.]

  44. (Back to text) See Tanya, ch. 35 (p. 45a).

  45. (Back to text) Tehillim 109:22, as interpreted by Berachos 61b and Tanya, ch. 1 (p. 5b).

  46. (Back to text) Devarim 6:5.

  47. (Back to text) Berachos 54a (in the Mishnah), Sifri and Rashi to the above verse; see also the Jerusalem Talmud, Berachos, the conclusion of ch. 9.

  48. (Back to text) Yoma 86b.

  49. (Back to text) Shmos 14:5.

  50. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 31 (p. 40b).

  51. (Back to text) Zechariah 13:2.

  52. (Back to text) Tzephaniah 3:9.

  53. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 61:5.

  54. (Back to text) Vayikra 26:2.

  55. (Back to text) See Rabbi Shimon's interpretation of the verse in Toras Kohanim.

  56. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 11:6-7.

  57. (Back to text) Ibid., 11:8.

  58. (Back to text) Sanhedrin 59b.

  59. (Back to text) Torah Or, Shmos 89c,d; 114d.

  60. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 15.

  61. (Back to text) [Malachi 3:18.]

  62. (Back to text) See Zohar, Vol. II, p. 128b; Tanya, ch. 27 (p. 34a); Torah Or, Vayakhel, 89d; Likkutei Torah, beginning of Parshas Pekudei; Chukas, p. 65b.

  63. (Back to text) Torah Or, loc. cit., p. 89c.

  64. (Back to text) The series of maamarim entitled Basi LeGani, 5710, ch. 11.

  65. (Back to text) [Since the service of iskafia involves Divine service that runs contrary to a person's individual nature, it evokes the manifestation of a Divine light whose revelation also runs contrary to nature.]

  66. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 64:3. [Our translation of the verse reflects our Sages' interpretation] Berachos 34b, Sanhedrin 99a, [and not the verse's literal meaning.]

  67. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 37.

  68. (Back to text) See Sefer HaMaamarim 5679, p. 464; the maamar entitled Ein HaKodesh Boruch Hu Ba, 5685, ch. 2ff. (Sefer HaMaamarim Kuntreisim, Vol. III, p. 121ff.).

  69. (Back to text) Ramah, Orach Chayim 1:1; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 1:3; loc. cit., Mahadura Basra, 1:1.

  70. (Back to text) The conclusion of tractate Chagigah; Eruvin 19b.

  71. (Back to text) Cf. Bereishis 15:14.

  72. (Back to text) Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Hilchos Talmud Torah 4:2, et al.

  73. (Back to text) See Sanhedrin 98a.

  74. (Back to text) Daniel 7:13; see Sanhedrin, loc. cit.

  75. (Back to text) Shmos 15:2; see Rashi's commentary to the verse, and the interpretation of Shmos Rabbah, the conclusion of ch. 23.

  76. (Back to text) See the maamar entitled Ki BiChipazon, 5708, sec. 1.

  77. (Back to text) [See sec. II.]

  78. (Back to text) [See sec. V.]


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