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Publisher's Foreword

Maamar Tziyon Bamishpat Tipadeh Vishaveha Betzedakah

Maamar Lehavin Inyan Techiyas HaMeisim

Maamar Kimei Tzeischa Meieretz Mitzrayim...

Maamar Kol Yisrael Yesh La'Hem Cheilek L'Olam Habah

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Glossary

Anticipating The Redemption - Volume 1

Maamar Tziyon Bamishpat Tipadeh Vishaveha Betzedakah

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  Publisher's ForewordMaamar Lehavin Inyan Techiyas HaMeisim  

Kuntres Shabbos Chazon, 5748

(Sefer HaMaamarim Meluket II, p. 317ff)

By the Grace of G-d
Shabbos Parshas Devarim, Shabbos Chazon
Erev Tishah beAv, 5741

"Zion shall be redeemed through justice and her captives[1] through tzedakah."[2]

In his discourse of this title delivered in the year 5674,[3] the Rebbe (Rashab) asks the following question: The meaning of Zion in this verse is not {specifically} the city of Zion,[4] but rather the Jewish people {as a whole[5]}. Why, then, does the verse use the term Zion? He also notes the verse's use of the term "captives" [and asks]: who are these captives?

{We may say, that the latter question (who are these captives?), also depends on the interpretation that Zion refers to the Jewish people. For there are those who explain[6] that "Zion" refers to the city of Zion, while "her captives" refers to the Jewish people. According to the explanation (in the discourse) that Zion refers to the Jewish people, the question arises: what differentiates between the two categories of "Zion" and "her captives"?}

II

The germ of the explanation (based on the interpretation in Reshimos HaTzemach Tzedek[7] on this verse, and in the above discourse[8]) is that "Zion" refers to those Jews who occupy themselves in the Torah and its mitzvos. They are called "Zion" because they are distinguished [-"Zion" as in tziun, a "sign"-] in their observance.

{[We find a parallel] in the Jerusalem Talmud which interprets[9] the verse:[10] "I have placed My words in your mouth and I covered you with the shadow of My hand, planting the heavens, laying the earth's foundations, and saying to Zion: 'You are My people,' " as follows:

We have reviewed the entire Scriptures and found that only here are the Jewish people referred to as Zion, (as the verse states), 'saying to Zion: "You are My people."[11]

As is well known, the explanation of the matter is as follows:[12] This verse speaks of the "three modes [of service] upon which the world stands: the study of Torah, the service of G-d, and deeds of kindness."[13] "I have placed My words in your mouth" refers to Torah study; "I covered you in the shadow with My hand" refers to deeds of kindness; "planting the heavens, laying the earth's foundations" refers to the sacrifices (as stated in the Jerusalem Talmud, ibid.).

This is the meaning of the statement "Only here are the Jewish people referred to as Zion." The Jewish people are [worthy of being] called "Zion" [only] when they occupy themselves in Torah study, the service of G-d, and the performance of deeds of kindness. For these [three modes of service] represent the Torah and its mitzvos as a whole.}

"Her captives" refers to those who do not occupy themselves in Torah study.[14] {The word vishaveha, "her captives," stems from the root shivyah,[15] "captivity."} These people are [held] in actual captivity in the body and the animal soul. This is the meaning of "Zion shall be redeemed through justice and her captives through tzedakah." The redemption of those who occupy themselves in Torah study comes about through justice; i.e., [their redemption] is an expression of justice. The redemption of the captives, by contrast, comes through tzedakah, [i.e., it is an expression of charity on G-d's part].

[This raises a question:] The redemption of the individuals who are held captive by their bodies and their animal souls will come about through teshuvah [repentance], as our Sages say, "Israel shall only be redeemed through repentance,"[16] and "The Torah has promised that Jews will eventually repent at the end of their exile and (as a result) they will be immediately redeemed."[17] [This appears to run contrary to the conception that the redemption will come about as an expression of G-d's charity.] Nevertheless, [there is no contradiction]. The fact that repentance brings about atonement is in itself, not an act of strict justice, but an expression of G-d's charity and generosity.[18]

{We may say that this is also the connection between the interpretation of vishaveha as "her captives" and the explanation that vishaveha refers to those who "turn [to G-d] in teshuvah". ([The word] vishaveha, also shares a connection to the word teshuvah). For the redemption of the captives comes about through their teshuvah.}

[Although the redemption of "her captives" requires tzedakah], it is, nevertheless, on a higher level than the redemption of Zion, [those involved in Torah study]. For the aspect of justice is limited, while the aspect of tzedakah knows no bounds. As explained in the discourse cited previously:[19] justice refers to a form of light that is on the level of the vessels [through which it shines], while tzedakah refers to a form of light that is by nature separate and apart, and descends [into our realm] only as an expression of tzedakah. Thus, the light that is drawn down to the righteous individuals whose redemption comes about through justice is [merely] the light that is on the level of the vessels. [And the light granted as tzedakah is much higher.]

{There are two concepts implied by saying that these individuals' redemption comes about through justice: a) they are not in need of tzedakah, since justice finds them worthy [of redemption]; b) justice negates tzedakah, as it is written,[20] "Do not give anyone special consideration when rendering judgment," and Rashi explains:[21] "You should not say this person is poor ... it is a mitzvah to provide him with sustenance.}

The light that is drawn down to those who turn [to G-d] in teshuvah, and whose redemption is through tzedakah is, by contrast, a light that is by nature [above our material framework and] separate [from it].

III

There is yet another explanation of vishaveha - that it is rooted in the word hashavah, "return," referring to those who return from exile.[22] The term hashavah {especially when used in close proximity to the phrase, "shall be redeemed"} connotes that even prior to their return, [the people themselves] are not in a state of exile, they are merely in another place, (a place of exile,) and they need but return to their original place.

According to this explanation, those who return [the subjects of the second clause in the verse] are on a higher plane than those ["Zion"] whom the verse promises "they shall be redeemed." For redemption applies to one who is in exile[23] and needs to be redeemed from there (as opposed to one who is only found in a place of exile).

Explanation is thus required: How can it be that those who are actually in exile are redeemed through justice; ([i.e., it is warranted by] the strict measure of the law), while the return of those who are merely found in a place of exile (and who are thus on a higher level) comes about [only] as an expression of tzedakah, [charity on G-d's part]?

We must also understand how to define the two categories concerning whom it is stated "redemption" and "return": For, [as mentioned,] "redemption" relates to Zion which refers (as explained above) to those Jews who occupy themselves in Torah study and the performance of mitzvos. They are, nevertheless, in exile and must be redeemed. What is the merit of those who are referred to as "those who return," who are not in a state of exile?

IV

The above can be understood by prefacing the concepts explained in the discourse cited above:[24] that the aspect of exile and captivity applies only to the keilim, the vessels, since they are an entity unto themselves. In contrast, the or, the light, which is characterized by ayin, nothingness and nullification, is not subject to exile.

The concept (that exile does not apply to or) is quite simple to understand, inasmuch as "a little light banishes a great deal of darkness."[25] This means that even after the light descends and is drawn down in a state of measure and limitation {for only then do the terms "little" or "much" apply}, the light is capable of banishing darkness. Indeed, even "a little light banishes a great deal of darkness."

Moreover, darkness is repelled effortlessly by light.[26] {At the beginning of creation, light and darkness were intermingled.[27] However, after "G-d caused a separation between the light and the darkness,"[28] darkness is banished by light}. We can thus understand that in the simple sense as well, that exile cannot apply to light, for the darkness (of exile) is banished by the light.

Similar concepts apply with regard to the soul and the body, which resemble a light and its vessel.[29] And as the renown declaration of the Previous Rebbe states,[30] only the body is in exile, not the soul. Even as the soul exists within the body which is in exile, the soul is not in exile. Nevertheless, since the body is in exile, the soul that is enclothed in the body finds itself out of place, and it must return [to its true place].

Thus [on the verse,[31] "I am asleep, but my heart is awake,"] our Sages comment,[32] "I sleep in exile, but my heart - the soul[33] - is awake." The soul is "an actual (mamesh) a part of G-d above."[34] This expression implies that even when the soul becomes manifest in a physical body and thus is given tangible expression (mamoshos[35]), it remains a part of G-d above {indeed, an "actual part of G-d above"}.

The Baal Shem Tov[36] teaches, "When you grasp part of the essence, you grasp it in its entirety." Therefore, [even after G-d] - with His faculty to perform wonders[37] - caused the soul to descend and vest itself within the body, and even when [the world at large] is in a time of exile, [the soul] is not in exile.

Accordingly, we may say that the term, "those who return," refers not to one particular category of Jews, but to the soul which all Jews possess. Since the soul is not in exile, the term redemption does not apply. Nevertheless, [even the soul] must return. For its enclothment within the body [influences it], to the extent that it is affected by the events that transpire concerning the body.[38] Therefore, when the body is exiled, the soul is also found in a place of exile, and it must return.

V

It is known that the purpose of the descent into exile is for the subsequent ascent. For our divine service during the period of exile will bring about an even greater degree of revelation in the Era of the Redemption than there was during the time of the Beis HaMikdash. [This sequence parallels the interpretation of the verse] "the advantage of light over darkness"[39] - that darkness evokes a greater measure of light, [bringing out] a higher level [of light] than was revealed previously.

[Similarly, in the present context,] the greater the degree of the descent (the darkness), the loftier the subsequent ascent (the additional measure of light). Accordingly, we can appreciate that, since the descent of exile affects primarily the body (as above sec. 4), the ascent in the Era of the Redemption (that results from the descent of exile) [which will be realized within] the body will be even higher than the ascent of the soul.

This will be more fully understood based on the explanations in other sources[40] regarding the ascent achieved by the soul because of its descent [to this material plane]. There are two dimensions to this ascent:

  1. The service of G-d performed by the soul as it exists within [this material realm], enclothed in a body and an animal soul reveals the intensity of the soul's bond with G-d; that it is so powerful that the concealment and hiddeness caused by the body and the animal soul cannot negate, or even weaken, this connection;

  2. By serving G-d in this material world, the soul purifies and refines the body, the animal soul, and its surrounding environment.

The difference between these two dimensions can be explained as follows:[41] In the first instance, the additional measure of light is brought about by darkness. The darkness reveals the intensity of the light, that even the greatest degree of darkness cannot cause concealment for it.

In the second instance, however, the additional measure of light comes from the darkness itself - the darkness (of the body, the animal soul, and our material world) is transformed into light.[42] The advantage herein is that the transformation of darkness itself into light can be brought about only through G-d's essential power which transcends the distinctions of light and darkness. Thus, the transformation of darkness into light reveals G-d's essence.

Moreover, it is precisely this mode of service that accomplishes the Divine intent in creation, that "G-d desires a dwelling place in the lower realms."[43] {And G-d's desire is rooted in His very essence.[44]}

As explained in Tanya,[45] the purpose of the soul's descent [to our world] is not for the soul's own benefit, rather to refine the body, the animal soul, and its portion in the world. For it is this service that fulfills the Divine intent of having a dwelling place in this world.[46]

Thus with regard to the ascent achieved through the descent of the soul to this material plane, the fundamental ascent involves the purification and refinement of the body. Similarly, with regard to the ascent in the Era of the Redemption that results from the descent into exile, the fundamental ascent involves the body.

For the advantage that accrues to the soul through the darkness of exile is the revelation of the intensity of its bond with G-d - that although it is clothed in a body and the body is in exile, even then the soul is not in exile. However, the advantage that accrues to the body is that the darkness of the body as it is in a state of exile (which is an even greater degree of darkness than its natural state[47]) is transformed into light. Moreover, by transforming the darkness of the body as it finds itself in exile into light, the Divine intent of having a dwelling place in the lower realms, within the lowest possible realm, is fulfilled.[48]

VI

It is known[49] that in the Era of the Redemption the soul will be sustained by the body. Accordingly, we may say that in the Era of the Redemption, the soul will be endowed with (not only the advantage of the additional measure of light that comes through [withstanding the challenge of] darkness, but) also the advantage that accrues from the darkness itself [being transformed into light]. Although this advantage will be manifest (primarily) in the body, the soul will receive this quality from the body.

To cite a parallel to a well-known concept,[50] the ascent that is achieved by the soul through its descent below into the body and animal soul: The concealment and hiddeness that stems from the body and the animal soul arouses and reveals hidden soul powers. ([The soul, however, possessed these powers on the level of potential] prior to its descent as well. [The descent merely brings the potential into revelation.]) [The fundamental] increase and advantage [that stems from the soul's descent] comes through the soul's [efforts to] refine and purify the body and the animal soul. [This brings about an ascent] within the soul itself.

This concept is reflected by the verse,[51] "Draw me closer, after You, we shall run." ["Draw me close" refers to the service of the G-dly soul; "after you, we shall run," to the arousal of both the animal soul and the G-dly soul.] When the [G-dly] soul influences the animal soul to attain a love of G-d, the animal soul's love [is charged with intense desire, motivating it] to "run." [And because it was the G-dly soul which brought the animal soul to this feeling,] this degree of love is attained by the G-dly soul as well. [Therefore, the verse states,] "we shall run," using the plural.[52] [This represents an increase for the G-dly soul, for although it possesses an innate desire and love for G-d, this love lacks the dynamism and energy of the love experienced by the animal soul.]

It is only that now, since the soul is the source of influence and the body is the recipient, the added advantage of the soul (which it receives from [the divine service carried out by] the body) is not complete. This state of completion will be attained in the Era of the Redemption, for at that time, the soul will be sustained by the body.

VII

On this basis, [we can appreciate the verse,] "Zion shall be redeemed through justice, and her captives, through tzedakah." The Jews are called Zion by virtue of their involvement in Torah study, Divine service, and deeds of kindness, these reflecting the Torah and its mitzvos in their totality. This causes them to be distinguished, and tziyun, the Hebrew for "Zion" means a "sign." Even as they find themselves in exile, [they remain distinguished]; they are not - G-d forbid - lost among the nations. ([To cite a parallel in the realm of halachah, when] a physical object has a "sign," the sign enables it to be returned to its owners [should it be lost]).

Moreover, through the Jews' observance of the Torah and its mitzvos during the time of exile, they ascend to a higher [spiritual] level, [attaining] an even higher rung than during the time of the Beis HaMikdash. There are two dimensions of this superiority:

  1. (As [explained] in sec. 5), the service in the time of exile reveals the intensity and the infinite dimension of the spiritual light, that even the greatest darkness possible (the darkness of exile, [and in particular,] the doubled and redoubled darkness in the era of ikvesa diMeshicha) [the time when Mashiach's approaching footsteps can be heard] cannot bring about concealment for it. When speaking in general terms, this alludes to the light that is above the keilim, (the light that is apart[53]). [This light can be described as] infinite, but it is, nevertheless, categorized as light.

  2. The transformation of darkness into light reveals [G-d's] essence which transcends the categories of light and darkness (as above).

The verse, ["Zion shall be redeemed...,"] is the final and concluding[54] verse of the Haftorah Chazon Yeshayahu. [Yeshayahu (as reflected by his name) is associated with yeshuah,[55] salvation. This also includes the true salvation, i.e., the Complete Redemption which will never be followed by exile.[56] This is intimated by the continuation of the verse,[57] "who received visions... in the days... of Yichezkiyahu,"[58] [for it is said,][59] "G-d sought to make [Yi]chezkiyahu Mashiach."]

This verse speaks of the ascent that will take place during the Future Redemption, and more specifically - [that which is achieved] through the second [dimension of] the ascent [which involves the transformation of the darkness itself into light], the primary aspect and ultimate purpose of exile.

On this basis, we can understand why the verse uses [both expressions,] "redeemed" and "those who return to her" [as noted in sec. 3]: For the ascent involves both the body that will be redeemed from exile ("redeemed"), and the soul that will return from the place of exile ("those who return to her"). Similarly, we can comprehend why redemption comes about through "justice," while the return comes through charity. For the ascent to be experienced by the body (redemption) is a function of justice. Since the body was in actual exile and it brought about the transformation of darkness into light, the advantage and the ascent that will accrue to it through this service, is due the body by right; [granting it is an act of] "justice." For the soul which merely was in the place of exile ([as implied by the term] "those who return") to be elevated to this level is (not due it by right, rather it comes) as an act of charity.

In addition, it is possible to say that in one particular, there is a superior aspect to the ascent of the soul over the ascent of the body. Since the ascent of the body is an expression of judgment (i.e., its ascent is in accord with the scales of intellect and logic), it is within the bounds of measure and limitation. The ascent of the soul, by contrast, comes as an expression of charity and is thus above all measure and limitation.

"A verse is not to be taken out of its plain context."[60] On the contrary, it is through studying the plain intent that the essence of the Torah is revealed. For the plain intent relates to the world of Asiyah,[61] [the world] in which the Divine intent of having a dwelling place in the lowest realms is fulfilled. We may also say that this is the (inner) reason why the Torah study of school-children, "breath that is devoid of sin,[62]" concerns specifically the plain meaning of the Torah.

The same also applies with regard to the matter at hand, the verse "Zion shall be redeemed through justice and her captives, through righteousness." The aspect of primary importance is the plain and simple meaning of the verse - the actual redemption and exodus from exile in the True and Complete Redemption led by our Righteous Mashiach; may this take place very speedily, in our times.

   

Notes:

  1. (Back to text) [This translation of the Hebrew "VeShave'ha" is based on Likkutei Torah, Devarim 1c.]

  2. (Back to text) Yeshayahu I:27 - The conclusion of the Haftorah of Shabbos Chazon.

  3. (Back to text) Printed in the series of maamarim, 5672, [entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu,] Vol. I, p. 564ff.

  4. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Vaes'chanan, in the discourse of this title (p. 36) (as well as in Or HaTorah, Vayeitze 213b), states that the explanation that Zion refers to the city alone is "a bit tenuous."

  5. (Back to text) We may say, that the intent in the series of maamarim, 5672, [entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu,] ibid. that "the meaning of 'Zion' here is not [specifically] the city of Zion," comes (not to negate the explanation that it refers to the city itself, rather,) to negate the interpretation that it refers to the Jews who dwell in Zion. This is the intent of the expression "not specifically the city of Zion, but the Jewish people in general."

    (See also discourse of this title of the year 5672 (the series of maamarim, 5672, [entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu,] loc. cit. p. 70) which states: "The intent is the Jewish people in general, not only those who dwell in Zion."

  6. (Back to text) Kli Yakor on this verse - quoted in Or HaTorah, Nach on this verse (I, end of p. 95).

  7. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Nach ibid.

  8. (Back to text) At the conclusion of the discourse of the year 5674, (the series of maamarim, 5672, [entitled BeShaah SheHikdimu,] loc. cit., p. 571).

  9. (Back to text) Taanis 4:2. See also Zohar III, 35a [quoted in Or HaTorah, Vaes'chanan in the discourse of this title (p. 36) (as well as in Or HaTorah, Vayeitze 213b, Nach ibid., end of p. 97)]; Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 3:6.

  10. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 51:16.

  11. (Back to text) [On one hand, this passage serves as a support, for it - as the maamar does above - interprets the term "Zion" as referring to the Jewish people. Nevertheless, the wording of the Jerusalem Talmud is slightly problematic for it implies that the verse "saying to Zion..." is the only time in which Scripture refers to the Jews with the name Zion, thus excluding our verse.

    As explained in this maamar, however, the Jerusalem Talmud is not excluding other verses, but rather other spiritual levels. Only when the Jews perform the three services implied by the verse, "I have placed My words in your mouth..." are they worthy of the name Zion.]

  12. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Vaes'chanan ibid., (and in Vayeitze ibid.) Nach ibid., p. 98; the discourses of this title of the years 5672 and 5674, and others. (See also Korban HaEidah on Jerusalem Talmud, ibid..)

  13. (Back to text) Avos 1:2.

  14. (Back to text) Or HaTorah, Nach as cited in fn. 7. The discourse of the year 5674 (ibid.) states that "her captives" refer to baalei teshuvah. See the subsequent [discussion] in this text.

  15. (Back to text) See also Likkutei Torah, Devarim, the discourse of this title (1c).

  16. (Back to text) Sanhedrin 97b; Rambam, Hilchos Teshuvah 7:5.

  17. (Back to text) Rambam, ibid.

  18. (Back to text) This is implied by the verse, (Michah 7:18) "Who is like You G-d forgiving iniquity...." Metzudas David (loc. cit.) interprets this to mean: "From the strict view of justice we are not worthy... for we are filled with iniquity, but 'who is like You G-d who forgives iniquity' and glosses over transgression."

    And Likkutei Torah (Derushei Rosh HaShanah 60d) states: "k-t (the name for G-d used in the verse) represents kindness ... who is as kind as You ... forgiving iniquities and glossing over transgression." Note also the saying of our Sages (Yalkut Shimoni, Tehillim, sec. 462): "They asked Torah... [What punishment is proper for one who sins?]." [The Torah responded "Let him bring a sin offering." Similarly, when the question was addressed to "wisdom" and "prophecy" a severe reply was given.] Only [when the question was asked of the Holy One, blessed be He,] was the response given, "Let him repent and he will be forgiven."

  19. (Back to text) Cited in fn. 8.

  20. (Back to text) Devarim 1:17.

  21. (Back to text) On this verse (based on the Sifri on this verse).

  22. (Back to text) Metzudas David on the verse.

  23. (Back to text) In many discourses [see at length in the discourse of this title of the year 5735 (printed in Sefer HaMaamarim Meluket I, p. 151ff) and sources cited there], it is explained that actual exile does not apply to "Zion." The intent [in these discourses] is that [Zion's] exile is not in a manner of "captivity" [as these maamarim contrast between Zion and "the captives"]. Nevertheless, even Zion is in a state of exile which requires redemption. The interpretation of vishaveha as "those who return," by contrast, implies that the people are merely found in the place of exile; there is no necessity that they be redeemed.

  24. (Back to text) Cited in fn. 8.

  25. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 12 (17a); Chovas HaLevavos, Shaar Yichud HaMaaseh, ch. 5.

  26. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 12 ibid., ch. 29 (37b).

  27. (Back to text) Commentary of Rashi on Bereishis 1:4 (and see also Rashi, ibid.:14). See also Jerusalem Talmud, Berachos 6:8; Bereishis Rabbah 3:6 (and Yifei Toar there). See also Sefer Ho'Arachim-Chabad II, entry Or - b'Yachas l'Choshech ch. 6, and sources cited there.

  28. (Back to text) Bereishis ibid.:4.

  29. (Back to text) See Introduction of Tikkunei Zohar (Pasach Eliyahu - 17b) "[When the light is removed from the vessels they] remain as a body without a soul." See also Siddur (Im Dach) 164c; discourses titled BaSukkos Teishvu 5670 (Sefer HaMaamarim 5670 p. 27ff) and 5710 (ch. 25 - Sefer HaMaamarim 5710 p. 59ff). See also Shaar HaYichud VehaEmunah ch. 6 (beginning of 81a). See as well Sefer Ho'Arachim-Chabad II, entry Oros d'Sefiros - b'Yachas l'Keilim ch. 8, and sources cited there.

  30. (Back to text) Sefer HaMaamarim 5687 p. 197; Sefer HaMaamarim Kuntreisim I, p. 175b; Likkutei Dibburim IV, p. 692a.

  31. (Back to text) [Shir HaShirim 5:2.]

  32. (Back to text) Zohar III, 95a.

  33. (Back to text) Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim (33d) quotes the Zohar ibid., which interprets the verse as follows: " 'My heart,' that is G-d." Nevertheless, Likkutei Torah, ibid. (34a) connects this as well with "the attribute of longing and desire that is found within each Jewish soul." Note also Iggeres HaKodesh 31.

  34. (Back to text) Tanya, beginning of ch. 2.

  35. (Back to text) See Igros Kodesh of the Previous Rebbe, Vol. IV, p. 407. Letter of the Rebbe Shlita dated Iyar 22, 5711* See also HaYom Yom, entry Menachem Av 23.

    * Printed in Igros Kodesh of the Rebbe Shlita, Vol. IV, p. 291.

  36. (Back to text) The series of discourses entitled Yom Tov Shel Rosh HaShanah, 5666, p. 522, et al. See also Sefer HaSichos 5701 end of p. 32 and fn. 19.

  37. (Back to text) Darkei Moshe on Tur, Orach Chayim 6:2; Ramah, Orach Chayim 6:1.

  38. (Back to text) Tanya, ch. 42 (p. 60b).

  39. (Back to text) Koheles 2:13. See at length Sefer Ho'Arachim-Chabad II, entry Or - b'Yachas l'Choshech ch. 8 (p. 575), and the sources cited there.

  40. (Back to text) See the discourse entitled V'Hayah Eikev 5727 (Sefer HaMaamarim Meluket II, p. 67ff) ch. 4; Likkutei Sichos XV, p. 246ff, and the sources cited there.

  41. (Back to text) See Toras Chayim, Noach end of 59d; Likkutei Sichos IX, p. 66. See also Likkutei Sichos VII, p. 44ff, ibid., p. 103; IX p. 22.

  42. (Back to text) [The darkness is not merely a catalyst. It itself becomes transformed into light.]

  43. (Back to text) See Midrash Tanchuma, Naso 16, Bechukosai 3; Bamidbar Rabbah 13:6; Tanya beginning of ch. 36.

  44. (Back to text) Although the transformation of darkness to light can also be achieved only through the power of G-d's essence that transcends light and darkness (as above in the text), [there is an advantage to creating an association with G-d's desire]. The aspect (that He "transcends the bounds [of darkness and light"]) reflects the greatness and magnificence of His [essence] (an aspect of "revelation"). His desire, by contrast, [relates to His essence itself].

  45. (Back to text) Ch. 37 (p. 48b), from Etz Chayim, Shaar XXVI (Shaar HaTzelem) ch. 1.

  46. (Back to text) For the statement in Tanya that "the purpose of the soul's descent is to refine the body..." follows in continuation of the explanation given in ch. 36: that the ultimate intent of creation is for G-d to having a dwelling place in the lowest levels of existence.

  47. (Back to text) See Sefer HaMaamarim 5670 p. 12ff; 5710 p. 18ff.

  48. (Back to text) Tanya beginning of ch. 36.

  49. (Back to text) See the discourse entitled Es Havayah He'emarta 5678 end of ch. 5 (Sefer HaMaamarim 5678 p. 417. There it states: "See that which is written at length in the discourse entitled Eileh Toldos Noach 5637"). See also Hemshech VeKachah 5637 chs. 91-92, et al.

  50. (Back to text) See the discourse entitled V'Hayah Eikev and Likkutei Sichos cited in fn. 41. and the sources cited there.

  51. (Back to text) Shir HaShirim 1:4.

  52. (Back to text) Likkutei Sichos I, p. 268. See also Likkutei Torah, Vayikra end of 2d; Or HaTorah, Shir HaShirim on this verse (p. 64, ibid., p. 72, ibid., pp. 82-83).

  53. (Back to text) The discourse of the year 5674 (quoted above in sec. 2) states that tzedakah refers to this quality of light. [This creates a slight conceptual difficulty, because] the explanation there emphasizes the quality of baalei teshuvah (following the interpretation that vishaveha refers to "those who repent").

    [In resolution, it can be explained that there are two dimensions to the ascent that comes about through teshuvah: a] the thirst and the additional intensity [aroused]. [This is merely prompted] by the darkness (see Tanya ch. 7, p. 12a). And this reflects (only) [G-d's] infinite light.

    [b] the baal teshuvah's transformation of sin into merit. This [establishes a connection] with G-d's essence. [Similarly,] with regard to the service of the righteous, the transformation of the body and the animal soul (and similarly the physical objects with which the mitzvos are performed) into holiness [establishes a connection with G-d's essence].

  54. (Back to text) And as our Sages state (Berachos 12a), "Everything follows the conclusion."

  55. (Back to text) See the commentaries of Rashi and Metzudas David on the verse Yeshayahu 49:1; Zohar II, end of p. 179b.

  56. (Back to text) See Tosafos (Hacha Garsinan v'Nemar), Pesachim 116b.

  57. (Back to text) Yeshayahu 1:1.

  58. (Back to text) [An alternate name for Chezkiyahu, who ruled the land of Yehudah at the time of the Assyrian invasion.]

  59. (Back to text) Sanhedrin 94a.

  60. (Back to text) Shabbos 63a. Additional sources cited there.

  61. (Back to text) Etz Chayim (quoted at the beginning of Nagid U'Mitzaveh. Nehar Shalom at the conclusion of the introduction Rechovos HaNahar) and Mishnas Chassidim (Misechteh Chiyuv HaNeshamos 1:2), quoted and explained in Likkutei Dibburim IV, p. 771a.

  62. (Back to text) Shabbos 119b.


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