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In Lieu Of Introduction: A Letter By The Rebbe

The Rebbe's Preface To The Hebrew Edition

Translator's Introduction To The English Edition

A Brief Biography Of The Honored And Holy Rebbe, Light Of The World, The Crown And Glory Of Israel, Our Saintly Lord And Master, Rebbe Shmuel

Biographic Chronology

For The Public Benefit

His Schedule And His Special Talents

His Descendants And His Seforim

From The Sichos Of The Rebbe Maharash Nshmoso Eden

From Sichos Printed Elsewhere

Her Husband's Crown

Her Ancestors

Reb Sender And The Informer

Reb Moshe, Leah Golda, And Reb Aharon

Her Mother, Rebbetzin Sarah

Rebbetzin Sarah's Children

The Rebbe Maharash's Marriages

Eishes Chayil

The Great Fire

After The Fire

Her Final Illness

Rebbetzin Leah Golda: Six Stories

Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch

Glossary

Sefer HaToldos Admur Maharash
A Biographical Sketch Of The Rebbe Maharash,
Compiled By The Rebbe From The Sichos And Notes Of His Father-In-Law,
The Rebbe Rayatz Nshmoso Eden
With Supplementary Material, Including A Newly Discovered Biography Of Rebbetzin Rivkah


Glossary

Translated by Shimon Neubort

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  Founders Of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch 

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All non-English entries are Hebrew unless otherwise indicated. Ar., Aramaic; Yid., Yiddish

For further definition of the terminology of Chassidus, see Rabbi Nissan Mindel, Glossary, in the Bi-Lingual Edition of Likkutei Amarim-Tanya, Kehot Publication Society, London, 1973, p. 774ff; Rabbi Jacob I. Schochet, Mystical Concepts in Chassidism, op. cit., p. 802ff.

An asterisk indicates a cross-reference within the Glossary

AdarHeb. month corresponding to February-March; in leap years, there are two months of Adar, called Adar I and Adar II
Aleinu(lit., "It is incumbent upon us..."): the concluding passages of the prayer services; e.g., *Siddur, p. 84
Ameinresponse given after hearing a prayer or blessing, and at certain points during the prayer service; expresses belief in what has just been said
am ha'aretz(lit., "resident of the land"): (a) an ignoramus, esp. one who is ignorant of *Torah; (b) one who is not scrupulous in following Jewish law
Anash(acronym for anshei shlomeinu, lit., "men of our peace"): the *chassidic fraternity; usually refers to the fellowship of the *chassidim who follow a specific *Rebbe
Ashrei(lit., "Happy are those..."): the opening passage of the *Minchah service; e.g., *Siddur, p. 96
Atzilus(lit., "the [World of] Emanation"): the highest of the Four Worlds described in *Kabbalah; the abode of the highest angelic beings and the souls of the greatest *tzaddikim; viewed as distinct from the lower worlds of *B'ya, and united with the Divine
AvHeb. month corresponding to July-August; also called Menachem Av
avodah(lit., "service"): (a) the Sacrificial Service in the *Beis HaMikdash; (b) the service of prayer later instituted in its stead; (c) in *chassidic terminology, refers to one's entire program of serving and worshiping G-d
Avodahthe: poetic passages in the *Yom Kippur liturgy describing the sacrificial service in the *Beis HaMikdash for that day; see *Machzor for Yom Kippur, p. 178ff
balebatim(Yid. form of baalei batim; lit., "masters of the houses"): pl. form of *balebos
balebos(Yid. form of baal habayis; lit., "master of the house"): an ordinary person who is head of a Jewish family, but has no special qualities that set him apart from the rest
bar mitzvah(lit., "obligated to fulfill the commandments"): (a) the attainment of religious majority at the age of 13, at which point a boy becomes personally responsible for his religious practice; (b) a lad who has reached the age of bar mitzvah; (c) a feast held in honor of the occasion
bas"daughter of ..."; used as part of a woman's formal name, followed by the name of either her father or mother
beis hamedrash(pl., batei hamedrash): house of (*Torah) study, usually serving as a synagogue as well; among *chassidim, the terms beis hamedrash and *shul are often used interchangeably
Beis HaMikdashthe (First or Second) Holy Temple in Jerusalem
ben"son of ..."; used as part of a man's formal name, followed by the name of either his father or mother
Binah(lit., "understanding"): the second of the ten *sefiros; the second state in the intellectual process of *Chabad, developing the initial conception of *Chochmah
biurimdetailed explanatory remarks and additions inserted or appended to the original text of a *maamar
bris; bris milah(lit., "the covenant [of circumcision]"): (a) the ceremony at which a Jewish male child is circumcised (usually) on the eight day counting from his birth; (b) the circumcision operation itself; (c) a feast held in honor of the occasion
B'ya(acronym for Beriah, Yetzirah, Asiyah" lit., "[Worlds of] Creation, Formation, Action"): the lower worlds, which are the abodes of varying levels of angels and human souls; viewed in *Kabbalah as separate from the Divine; see Atzilus
Chabad(acronym for *Chochmah, *Binah, *Daas): (a) the first three of the ten *sefiros, and the corresponding stages that comprise the intellectual process; (b) the branch of the Chassidic Movement (see Chassidus) whose roots are in an intellectual approach to the service of G-d, and which was founded by R. Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the Alter Rebbe; a synonym for Chabad in this sense is *Lubavitch, the name of the township where the movement flourished 1813-1915; (c) the philosophy of this school of Chassidism; (d) adherents of this movement
chassan(a) a young man engaged to be married; (b) the groom at a wedding; (c) a young man recently married; see kallah
Chanukah(lit., "rededication"): eight-day festival celebrating the recapture of the second *Beis HaMikdash from the Syrian Greeks, and its rededication
chassid(pl., chassidim): (a) adherent of the *Chassidic Movement (see Chassidus); (b) follower of a particular chassidic *Rebbe (when capitalized, "Chassid")
Chassidus(a) Chassidism, i.e., the movement within Orthodox Judaism founded by the Baal Shem Tov, stressing: emotional involvement in prayer; service of G-d through the material universe; wholehearted earnestness in divine service; the mystical in addition to the legalistic dimension of Judaism; the power of joy, and of music; the love to be shown to every Jew, unconditionally; and the mutual physical and moral responsibility of the members of the informal chassidic brotherhood, each chassid having cultivated a spiritual attachment to their saintly mentor, the *Rebbe; (b) the philosophy and literature of this movement; see also Chabad
chazanthe one who leads the public prayer service; the cantor
chedertraditional Jewish elementary school
cheshbon hanefeshan accounting of one's soul; taking stock of one's spiritual status, usually in preparation for *teshuvah
CheshvanHeb. month falling during October-November; also called MarCheshvan
Chessed(lit., "kindness"): the first of the seven Divine *middos; denotes unrestrained benevolence, without regard to whether the recipient is deserving
Chochmah(lit., "wisdom"): the first of the ten *sefiros; the first stage in the intellectual process; reason in potentia
Chumashthe first five books of the Bible; the Pentateuch
chupah(lit., "canopy"): (a) a covering - usually portable, made of cloth and supported by four poles - under which wedding ceremonies are traditionally held; (b) the ceremony itself
Daas(lit., "knowledge"): the third of the ten *sefiros; the third stage in the intellectual process of *Chabad, at which concepts, having proceeded from seminal intuition (*Chochmah) through meditative gestation (*Binah), now mature into their corresponding *middos
davendavenen; davening (Yid.): (a) the prayers; in *Chabad usage also signifies (b) the *avodah of praying at length, the reading of passages in the *Siddur being interspersed with pauses for disciplined meditation from memory on related texts in *Chassidus; (c) used as a verb, e.g., "I am ready to daven *Minchah" or "he is busy davening"
deveikus(lit., "clinging"): spiritual attachment to, or unification with the Divine
dikduk[Hebrew] grammar
Ein Sof(lit., "without end"): the Infinite; a term used in *Kabbalah and *Chassidus to denote the essence of G-d Himself
Ein Yaakov(lit., "The Eye of Yaakov"): a collection of allegorical passages from the *Talmud, printed with accompanying commentaries
Eishel Avrahama work by R. Avraham ben Shaul Broida (c. 1650-1717), *rav and dean of a *yeshivah in Prague; Eishel Avraham was published in Frankfurt am Main (1747) and features novel insights to the *Talmudic tractates pesachim, Chulin, and Bava Basra
eishes chayil(lit., "woman of valor"): a woman noted for her exceptional character traits and deeds; see Mishlei 31:10-31; Siddur, p. 145; "An eishes chayil is her husband's crown": Mishlei 12:4
ElulHeb. month falling during August-September
Eretz Yisraelthe Land of Israel
Erev(lit., "evening" or "eve of"): when introducing another word (e.g., Erev Shabbos, Erev Yom Tov) it can mean either (a) the evening with which the specified holy day begins or (b) the day that ends with the onset of the holy day at sunset (e.g., Erev Shabbos is Friday)
farbrengen(Yid.): (a) a chassidic assembly addressed by the *Rebbe; (b) an informal gathering of *chassidim for mutual and brotherly edification
fleishigfood containing meat or meat products, and utensils in which such food is prepared or served; must be kept separate from *milchig food and utensils
gabbai(pl., gabbaim: Ar.): (a) an official of the *Rebbe's court who admits people for *yechidus; (b) an executive officer of the synagogue or other communal institution
Gan Edenthe Garden of Eden (Paradise)
gaon(lit., "esteemed one"; pl., geonim): a *Torah genius
gartel(Yid.): a braided sash or belt worn (esp. by *chassidim) during prayer and other formal occasions
Gemara(Ar.): the *Talmud; the elucidation of the *Mishnah, and the discussion of related topics, by the Sages
geonimsee gaon; when capitalized, "the Geonim" refers to the heads of the *Torah Academies in post-*Talmudic Babylonia
Gevurah(lit., "strength; severity"): the second of the seven Divine *middos; denotes concealment and withholding of benevolence beyond what exacting judgment dictates that the recipient deserves
Haggadah(lit., "Recitation"): text recited on the first nights of *Pesach at the *Seder
Hakkafos(lit., "circuit"): the seven processions with the *Torah scrolls in the *shul on *Simchas Torah, accompanied by singing and dancing (Siddur, p. 335)
Halachah(lit., "the way to go"): (a) the body of Jewish law; (b) texts dealing with this subject
hashgachah pratisG-d's Divine providence in supervising the minute details of everything that occurs to each individual created thing
HaYom Yom(lit., "Today is the Day"): the first *sefer published by the Rebbe, containing brief biographies of all the *Rebbeim, and entries for each day of the year, featuring any special customs to be observed on that day and a short teaching gleaned from the Rebbe Rayatz's writings and *sichos
hemshech(lit., "continuation"): a lengthy *maamar originally broken into several parts and delivered in serial fashion over a period of weeks or months
IyarHeb. month falling during April-May
Kabbalah(lit., "received tradition"): the body of classical Jewish mystical teachings
Kabbalas Shabbos(lit., "reception of Shabbos): service recited Friday evenings before *Maariv (*Siddur, p. 128ff.)
kallah(a) a young woman engaged to be married; (b) the bride at a wedding; (c) a young woman recently married; see chassan
Kerias Shemarecitation of the Shema, a text containing three passages of the *Torah to be recited during the morning and evening prayer services, and before retiring at night (e.g., *Siddur, p. 46)
Kesuvimthe Scriptures, a section of *Tanach
KislevHeb. month falling during November-December
Kor'im(lit., "bend the knees"): passages during the *Avodah service describing how all who were present in the Courtyard of the *Beis HaMikdash would kneel and prostrate themselves; when reaching these passages, it is customary for the *chazan and congregation to do likewise; e.g., Machzor for Yom Kippur, p. 180, "And when the Kohannim..."
levush(pl., levushim): spiritual garment(s) in which one's soul is clothed, derived from his character traits and his *avodah in thought, speech, and action
Lubavitch(lit., "town of love": Rus.): village in White Russia (now in Russia) which, from 1813 to 1915, was the center of *Chabad *Chassidus, and whose name has remained a synonym for it
maamad(lit., "support"): a fund collected through donations by the *chassidim, to be used for the support of the *Rebbe, his household, the chassidic court, and the Rebbe's charity funds
maamar(lit., "oral presentation"; pl., maamarim): formal discourse on *Chassidus originally delivered by the *Rebbe, and later (usually) either edited and published in writing by the Rebbe, or transcribed and repeated by *chassidim; usually begins with a passage quoted from *Tanach or (less frequently) the works of the Sages, proceeding to analyze some topic in Chassidus in the form of questions and answers on the quoted passage
Maarivevening prayer service (*Siddur, p. 106ff.)
machshavos zarosextraneous and inappropriate thoughts during prayer, *Torah study, or the performance of a *mitzvah
Machzor(lit., "cycle [of prayers]"): a prayer book derived from the *Siddur, containing the prayers and hymns recited on *Rosh HaShanah or *Yom Kippur (bound either together or separately); page references in the present work are to the edition (with English translation) entitled Machzor for Rosh HaShanah, or Machzor for Yom Kippur, (Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, Brooklyn, 1982)
makkif(lit., "surrounding; encompassing"): in *Chassidus, refers to an entity on a higher level of *seder hishtalshelus that affects an entity on a lower level without any internal connection between them
Malchus(lit., "sovereignty"): the last of the ten *sefiros, intermediary between *Chabad and the *middos of the higher spiritual worlds, and our lower physical worlds
MarCheshvansee Cheshvan
mashpia(a) spiritual mentor, who guides *chassidim in the study of *Chassidus and in following the chassidic lifestyle; (b) a benefactor - in the terminology of Chassidus, this refers to a higher entity that imparts spiritual influence to a lower entity (see mekabel)
mazel tov!(lit., "a good star"): "Good Luck!"; also, commonly used in the sense of "Congratulations!" or a combination of these two sentiments
mechutan(a) the father of one's son-in-law or of one's daughter-in-law; (b) in a broader sense, any man to whom one is related through marriage; fem. equiv., mechutenes (Heb.) or mechutenesta (Yid.)
Megillah(lit., "scroll"): a scroll, handwritten on parchment, containing the Biblical Book of Esther, read publicly on the festival of Purim
mekabel(lit., "that which receives"): in the terminology of *Chassidus, this refers to a lower entity that receives spiritual influence from a higher entity (see mashpia, definition b)
Menachem Avsee Av
middahcharacter trait; in *Chassidus and *Kabbalah usually refers to one of the Divine *middos
middos(a) the six Divine *sefiros inferior to the intellectual attributes of *Chabad; (b) their corresponding human emotional attributes or character traits
Midrashone of the classical collections of the Sages' homiletical teachings in which the *Torah is expounded on a non-literal level
milahcircumcision (see bris)
milchigfood containing milk or dairy products, and utensils in which such food is prepared or served; must be kept separate from *fleishig food and utensils
Minchah(lit., "the offering"): afternoon prayer service (*Siddur, p. 96ff.)
minyan(lit., "the number"): (a) ten adult male Jews; (b) a quorum for public prayer, consisting of ten such Jews; (c) a room where the minyan prays
Mishnahthe germinal statements of law elucidated by the *Gemara, together with which they collectively constitute the *Talmud; any one such statement is likewise called a Mishnah
Mishnayospassages from the * Mishnah
misnaged(pl., misnagdim): opponent of *Chassidus, either as an individual, or as a member of an organized opposition group
mitzvah(lit., "commandment"; pl., mitzvos): (a) one of the 613 commandments of the *Torah; (b) in a broader sense, any religious obligation or meritorious act
Moreinu"Our Master"; an honorary title used as a preface to the name of a particularly important rabbi
Motzoei Shabbosthe night following the *Shabbos day
mussarJewish philosophic works dealing with personal conduct and character, and methods for self-improvement in these areas
Nachacronym for Nevi'im (the Prophets), Kesuvim (the Scriptures); the portion of the *Tanach beyond the *Chumash
Nasi(lit., "prince"; pl., Nesi'im): in *Chabad chassidic usage, refers to the Baal Shem Tov, the Maggid, or one of the *Rebbeim
Nesi'imsee Nasi
Netzach(lit., "eternity; conquest; victory"): the fourth of the seven Divine *middos; denotes uncompromising firmness and perseverance
Nevi'imthe Prophets, a section of *Tanach
niggun(pl., niggunim): melody, esp. one in the *chassidic style (usually without words) used in Divine service
Niglehthe revealed aspects of *Torah, such as *Talmud and *Poskim
NissanHeb. month falling during March-April
Ohel(lit., "tent"): in chassidic usage means the structure built over the resting place of a *tzaddik, and frequented by *chassidim in prayer
parshahportion of the *Torah read publicly each week
Parshas...the week during which the named *parshah is read; see also Shabbos Parshas...
Pesachthe Passover Festival, occurring on 15 *Nissan, celebrating the Exodus from Egypt
pilpul(pl., pilpulim): a complex scholarly dissertation
Poskim(lit., "deciders"): (a) works of applied Jewish law; (b) the authors of these works
Rambam(acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon; 1135-1204): Maimonides, one of the foremost Jewish thinkers of the Middle Ages; his Mishneh Torah is one of the pillars of Jewish Law, and his Guide for the Perplexed, one of the classics of Jewish Philosophy
Rashi(acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki; 1040-1105): author of the foremost commentaries on the Bible and *Talmud; his commentaries are traditionally printed together with the text
rav(pl., rabbonim): the rabbi of a community or congregation
Rav"Rabbi"; used as a title prefacing a proper name
Reb(a) a short form of "*Rebbe," used as a title prefacing a proper name; (b) colloq., used with the name of any adult Jewish male, approx. equivalent to the English "Mister"
Rebbe(Yid. pronunciation of Rabbi, "my teacher [or master]"; pl., Rebbeim): *tzaddik who serves as spiritual guide to a following of *chassidim; see *Chassidus
Rebbetzin(Yid.): (a) wife of a rabbi or *Rebbe; (b) a woman of great spiritual achievements in her own right (c) title preceding the proper name of a Rebbetzin
Rosh Chodesh(lit., "head of the month"): New Moon, i.e., one or two semi-festive days at the beginning of the month
Rosh HaShanah(lit., "head of the year"): the Jewish New Year festival, falling on [1] and [2] *Tishrei
ruach hakodeshspirit of prophecy
schachthe covering material made from branches and similar vegetation and used as the roof of a *sukkah
Seder(lit., "the order"): ceremonial meal accompanied by numerous rituals and recitation of the *Haggadah, observed on the first two nights of *Pesach
seder hishtalshelus(a) the order of evolutionary descent from higher planes to lower levels in the dynamic process of Creation, as discussed in *Kabbalah; (b) the successive intermediate stages of this process
sefer(pl., seforim): a [sacred] text
sefirah(pl., sefiros): term used in *Kabbalah for the attributes of G-dliness which serve as a medium between His infinite light and our limited framework of reference, or between the supernal worlds, and our lower world
Selichos(lit., "pardons"): (a) special prayers recited before dawn during the week preceding *Rosh HaShanah; (b) the days during which these prayers are recited; (c) special prayers recited on fast days
semichah(lit., "laying on of hands"): rabbinic ordination (usually given as a written certificate), authorizing the recipient to use the title of *Rav and to issue rulings of *Halachah
Seven-Seventy (or "770")familiar name for the building at 770 Eastern Parkway, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York, and adjoining structures, housing: (a) the central headquarters of the worldwide Lubavitcher Chassidic Movement; (b) the Rebbe Rayatz's residence from 1940 until his passing in 1950; (c) the Rebbe's private office and secretariat, and (later) also his residence; (d) the present home of the central Lubavitcher *Yeshivah
Shabbos(lit., "[day of] rest"; pl., Shabbasos): the Sabbath
Shabbos Bereishisthe *Shabbos following *Simchas Torah
Shabbos Parshas...the *Shabbos on which a [named] *parshah is read
Shabbos Selichosthe *Shabbos occurring just prior to the week when *Selichos are recited
Shavuos(lit., "weeks"): festival occurring in very late spring, celebrating the giving of the *Torah on Mt. Sinai, and the sacrificial service of the new wheat crop in Temple times
shefoch chamosecha"Pour out Your wrath..."; passage in the *Haggadah
SheHechiyanublessing ("who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season") recited at various festive or otherwise happy occasions, at important events, and when hearing good news (e.g., *Siddur, p. 87)
sheva berachosthe "seven benedictions," recited following the Grace After Meals at feasts attended by the *chassan and *kallah during the week following their wedding (*Siddur, p. 366)
Shlita(acronym for Sheyichye LeOrech Yomim Tovim Amein): abbreviation placed after a person's name, expressing the wish: "may he be preserved in life for many good days, Amein"
Shmuel HaNavi the Biblical prophet Shmuel
shochetritual slaughterer, who slaughters and inspects cattle and fowl in the ritually-prescribed manner for kosher consumption
shofarram's horn, sounded after the *Shacharis service during the month of *Elul, on *Rosh HaShanah, and at the conclusion of *Yom Kippur
shula synagogue; among *chassidim, the terms shul and *beis hamedrash are often used interchangeably
ShvatHeb. month falling during January-February
sichah(pl., sichos): informal talk delivered by the *Rebbe on various occasions, later usually transcribed in writing
Siddur(lit., "order [of prayers]"): prayer book; page references in the present work are to the edition (with English translation) entitled Siddur Tehillat HaShem (Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, Brooklyn, 1979)
Simchas Torah(lit., "the Rejoicing of the *Torah"): festival following *Sukkos, on which the public reading of the Torah is annually concluded and recommenced; observed with great joy, singing and dancing, and the *Hakkafos procession
SivanHeb. month falling during May-June
sukkah(lit., "booth"): temporary dwelling in which Jews live during the festival of *Sukkos
Sukkos(lit., "Booths): seven-day festival beginning on 15 *Tishrei, taking its name from the temporary dwelling in which Jews live during this period
Taanis Esther(lit., the "Fast Day of Esther"): a fast held on 13 *Adar (in leap years, 13 Adar II); if that date falls on *Shabbos, the fast is held on the preceding Thursday (11 Adar)
Talmudthe basic compendium of Jewish law, thought, and Biblical commentary; its tractates mainly comprise the discussions collectively known as the *Gemara, which elucidate the germinal statements of law collectively known as the *Mishnah
TammuzHeb. month falling during June-July
Tanachacronym for Torah (i.e., the *Chumash), *Nevi'im, *Kesuvim; the Bible
Tehillim(lit., "praises"): the Book of Psalms
tenaim(lit., "stipulations"): (a) a written contract agreeing that a *chassan and *kallah are engaged to be married, and stipulating certain financial arrangements regarding the engagement and eventual marriage; (b) a feast held in celebration of the engagement, during which the contract is witnessed and then read in public
teshuvah(lit., "return [to G-d]"): repentance
TevesHeb. month falling during December-January
Tiferes(lit., "glory"): the third of the seven Divine *middos; denotes harmonious balance between the extremes of *Chessed and *Gevurah
TishreiHeb. month falling during September-October
Tomchei Temimimthe original central *yeshivah established by the Rebbe Rashab in *Lubavitch in 1897, the succeeding central yeshivos, and their branches
Torah(lit. "law"): (a) G-d's revealed truth, communicated as the Written Law (the Bible), and the Oral Law (the oral tradition communicated by our Sages throughout history, much of it set down in the *Talmud); (b) a handwritten parchment scroll containing the five books of the *Chumash, used for public reading during the prayer services on *Shabbos, Monday, Thursday, festivals, and fast days
Torah Or(lit., "the *Torah Is Light"): a classic collection of *chassidic discourses by the Alter Rebbe
Toras HaChassidusthe philosophy and literature of *Chassidus
Tosafos(lit., "supplements"): classical commentaries on the *Talmud, composed by the descendants and disciples of *Rashi, which began to appear in the mid-twelfth century and are traditionally printed together with the text of the Talmud
tzaddik(pl., tzaddikim): (a) completely righteous individual; (b) *Rebbe
tzidkanisa righteous woman (fem. form of *tzaddik)
yartzeit(lit., "time of year": Yid.): the anniversary of a person's death (usually that of one's parent or one's *Rebbe)
yayin nesech(lit., "wine of libation"): (a) wine that was used or dedicated for idolatrous sacrifice; it is forbidden to drink such wine; (b) any wine that has been handled by a non-Jew while in an unsealed container; such wine, though technically not yayin nesech, is forbidden by rabbinic law
yechidusprivate interview at which a *chassid seeks guidance and enlightenment from his *Rebbe
yeshivah(pl., yeshivos): *Torah academy for advanced students
yetzer horaman's inborn evil inclination
Yom Kippur(lit., "Day of Atonement"): solemn fast day falling on 10 *Tishrei and climaxing the annual penitential period
Yom Tov(lit., "Good Day"): a festival
Zayde(Yid.): Grandfather
Zemirosliturgical hymns traditionally recited or sung during the meals on *Shabbos or *Yom Tov; it is not the custom of *Chabad to recite most of these hymns, though there are exceptions (e.g., Siddur, pp. 147, 202, 211)
Zohar(lit., "radiance"): classic mystical work from which the teachings of *Kabbalah are derived

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